Neuro Week 2

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julieaburch
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113279
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Neuro Week 2
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2011-10-30 21:25:18
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Neuro Week
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Neuro Week 2
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  1. Which muscle fiber type is involved with spindles? Which is the GTO type?
    • Ia: spindle
    • Ib: GTO
  2. Musle types II, III, and IV are of what type?
    Sensory Muscle
  3. Do primary sensory muscle neurons terminate ipsilaterally or contralaterally?
    Ipsilaterally
  4. What type of muscles (where) do medial motoneurons project to?
    Axial (shoulder to elbow; thigh to knee) and girdle (trunk) muscles
  5. What type of muscles (where) do lateral motoneurons project to?
    Distal limbs (elbow and knee down) and extremities
  6. alpha-Motoneurons innervate what type of muscle fibers?
    Extrafusal (force generating) muscle fibers
  7. gamma-Motoneurons innervate what type of muscle fibers?
    Intrafusal (non-force generating) muscle fibers within the muscle spindle
  8. What are the two steps, in general, by which a muscle can increase its force of contraction?
    • 1. Recruitment -- smaller motoneurons are recruited first, then larger ones
    • 2. Increased frequency of action potentials
  9. Slow motor units are composed of small motoneurons that innervate "slow" muscle. What color are these, and are they type I or II? Are they susceptible to fatigue?
    • Red
    • Type I
    • Fatigue Resistant
  10. Fast motor units are composed of large motoneurons that innervate "fast" muscle. What color are these, and are they type I or II? Are they susceptible to fatigue?
    • Pale or White
    • Type II
    • Yes
  11. Which spinal nerve has no dorsal root?
    C1
  12. What is an encapsulated structure that senses muscle strength? Where are these generally located in the muscle?
    • Spindle
    • Close to tendons
  13. All Ia muscle fibers innervate spindles. As the spindle gets longer, due to muscle lengthening, what do the Ia fibers do?
    Generate more action potentials
  14. Both Bag1 and Bag2 intrafusal muscle fibers respond to signal length. Which one also responds to velocity?
    Bag1
  15. gamma-Motoneurons innervate lateral to center of Bag1 fibers. When these get excited, they generate a contraction, shortening that area of the spindle. These are located on both sides. So, as the outside of the spindle shortens due to the excitation of these gamma-motoneurons, what happens to the middle?
    Lengthens
  16. In intrafusal motoneurons, where are Ia primary endings located? Where are II secondary endings located? What type of intrafusal muscle fibers (bag1 or bag2s, or both) do each of these innervate?
    • Ia primary endings: surround the center region; both -- signal both rate of change in length and magnitude of length
    • II secondary endings: are a short distance from the center region; innervated by bag2s, so cannot signal dynamic stretch (velocity)
  17. Gamma efferents are located away from center and lateral to secondary endings; what type of fibers do they innervate?
    Bags
  18. beta=motoneurons innervate both extrafusal and intrafusal fibers. Which type of bag do they provide innervation for?
    Bag1
  19. gamma-motoneurons alter the sensitivity (or gain) of the spindle by increasing or decreasing the amount of _________ on the center region of the spindle.
    Stretch
  20. In group Ib fibers, sensory information signals muscle _________.
    Tension
  21. GTOs respond to ___________; spindles respond to __________.
    • Force
    • Length
  22. During passive stretch, spindle (Ia) fibers will _________ (excite/inhibit). GTO (Ib) fibers will _________ (excite/inhibit).
    • Excite
    • Excite
  23. During contraction (with shortening), spindle (Ia) fibers will _________ (excite/inhibit). GTO (Ib) fibers will _________ (excite/inhibit).
    • Inhibit
    • Excite
  24. What type of fibers does the stretch (myotatic) reflex activate?
    Ias
  25. What is the only monosynaptic reflex?
    The Stretch Reflex
  26. If a stretch reflex is lost in the biceps, what nerve root is likely involved? What muscles are affected?
    • C5
    • Biceps, Deltoid
  27. If a stretch reflex is lost in the triceps, what nerve root is likely involved? What muscles are affected?
    • C7
    • Triceps, Wrist & Finger Extensors
  28. If a stretch reflex is lost in the knee (knee jerk reflex), what nerve roots are likely involved? What muscles are affected?
    • L2-L4
    • Quadriceps
  29. If a stretch reflex is lost in the ankle (ankle jerk reflex), what nerve root is likely involved? What muscles are affected?
    • S1
    • Gastroc, Plantar flexors
  30. What is an oscillation in muscle contraction in which the muscle alternatively contracts and relaxes rapidly (3-7 contractions/s)?
    Clonus
  31. What type of reflex is elicited by activity in Ib fibers?
    Tendon Reflex
  32. If the arm is extended and then flexed, what happens to Ia activity in the biceps? Ib activity?
    • Ia activity from the biceps will decrease due to muscle shortening
    • Ib activity originating in the biceps will increase due to increased force in development on biceps
  33. If the arm is extended, and then flexed, what happens to Ia activity in the triceps? Ib activity?
    • Ia activity originating in the triceps will increase due to muscle lengthening
    • Ib activity in the triceps will decease due to it being contracted to start with
  34. The flexor reflex is elicited by what type of stimulus? What type of fibers are involved in this?
    • Nociceptive
    • Ib fibers
  35. What type of cell is a unique type of inhibitory interneuron -- a collateral axon of an alpha-motoneuron excites this cell type, which then inhibits the alpha-motoneuron that excited it, and may inhibit all homonymous alpha-motoneurons to the same muscle? What neurotransmitter excites this cell type?
    • Renshaw Cells
    • ACh
  36. Which neuromuscular junction disorder is a post-synaptic disorder?
    Myasthenia Gravis
  37. What two antibody types are seen in myasthenia gravis?
    • AChR -- antibodies against the alpha subunit of the AChR
    • MuSK -- antibodies against muscle specific kinase
  38. Most congenital myasthenic disorders are of what inheritance pattern? What is the exception?
    • AR
    • Slow channel syndrome -- mostly AD
  39. What type of antibodies are seen in Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome?
    Antibodies against pre-synaptic VGCC (voltage-gated calcium channel)
  40. What two enzymes are often elevated in myopathies?
    Creatinine phosphokinase and Aldolase
  41. In what neuromuscular syndrome type is myoglobinuria seen?
    Myopathies
  42. What is the inheritance pattern and gene affected in Duchenne MD?
    X-linked; dystrophyn
  43. What is the most common adult form of MD?
    Myotonic Dystrophy
  44. In what type of myopathies are polymyositis, dermatomyositis, and inclusion body myositis seen?
    Inflammatory Myopathies
  45. In what type of myopathy are ragged red fibers seen?
    Mitochondrial Myopathies
  46. What is the treatment for hypokalemic or hyperkalemic periodic paralysis?
    Acetazolamide
  47. What type of peripheral neuropathy involves the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve?
    Meralgial paresthetica
  48. What is the most common inherited neurological disorder? What is the most common inheritance pattern?
    • Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease
    • AD
  49. In what syndrome do you see elevated CSF protein with normal cell count? What is the treatment for this?
    • GBS
    • IVIg or plasma exchange
  50. What are the treatment options for Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy?
    • Steroids
    • IVIg
    • Plasma Exchange

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