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3 Requirements for socialization
- Social interaction
- Love and affection
Cooley's Looking Glass-Process
core of personality is concept of self-image, which we develop from the way others treat us.
Mead's Role-Taking Process
- "The I and the me"
- Me= conforms social behavior
- I= individualistic: spontaneous, creative, impulsive
- Maternal separation and social isolation among monkeys.
- Monkeys prefered cloth over wire mother.
Anna and Isabelle
Isolated until 6
Amala and Kamala
Indian feral children raised by wolves
Deaf and Blind
Did research on the effect on orphans who received little attention.
The process of interaction through which people learn what is necessary for social life
Going along with one's peers, individuals of a person's own status, who have no special right to direct that person's behavior.
Durkheim's term for the loss of direction felt in a society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective.
process by which an individual learns to assume a role in the future. e.g. playing house. As its later stages, individual becomes more practical and less idealistic
Goffman and Dramaturgy
the method of analyzing social interactions as if the participants were performing on a stage. We follow scripts we've heard before. we are different on and off the stage
an act considered by public consensu, or by the powerful, at a given time and place, to be a violation of some social rule
social condition in which norms are absent, weak, or in conflict
Merton's Strain Theory
Blames deviance on society's failure to provide all people with legitimate means to achieve success. Helps explain robbery, but not white-collar crimes.
Hirschi's Control Theory
- social control leads to conformity, lack of social control leads to deviance. 4 types of social bonds:
- 1. attachment to conventional ppl and institutions (loving parents, making friends, enjoying school)
- 2. Committment to conformity (getting education, finding business)
- 3. Involvement in Conventional Activities (keep themselves busy)
- 4. Belief in moral validity of social rules.
law enforcement favors the rich, oppresses the subordinate class into deviance, and spread ideologies that the lower class is crime prone and dangerous.
powerful are more likely to engage in profitable deviances because of a stronger deviant motivation, greater deviant opportunity, and weaker social control
Sutherland's Differential Association Theory
deviance is learned through interactions with other people. helps explain white collar crime
being labeled as deviant leads people to see themselves as deviant and live up to this self-image.
Three-line experiment on conformity. Nearly 1/3 students accepted majority's answer. groupthink
Definition of Family
A group of people related by marriage, ancestry, or adoption who live together in a common household
5 Functions of the Family (Functional theory)
- 1. sexual regulation
- 2. reproduction
- 3. socialization
- 4. economic cooperation
- 5. emotional security
Social Diversity of Families
Minorities in general emphasize kinship
Increased rapidly 50s-80s, but has declined slowly since.
Single Parent families
- sharp increase last 3 decades.
- Also, number of single adults rising
Crime rates for robbery, assault, burglary, etc.
US vs. England
US vs. England
USA has highest rates for murder and rape in industrialized countries.
Classic/Rational Choice Theory