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- Elizabeth Tudor
- -Also known as Elizabeth I
- -Reigned from 1558 - 1603
- -She was known for her sexual ambiguity
- -She highly sexualized herself
- -She was highly educated
- -Known for being meticulous, and involved leader
- Henry Wriothesley
- -3rd Earl of Southampton
- -Speculated lover of Shakespeare
- -Venus and Adonis and The Rape of Lucrece were dedicated to him
- James I
- -James VI of Scotland
- -King of England in 1603
- -Elizabeth's heir
- -Known for writing Daemonologie
- -Had Macbeth written for him
- -Political Philosopher
- -Author of The Prince (A book) Evil character
- Italian Sonnet
- -Petrarch wrote sonnet sequence in praise of a woman he calls Laura
- -Form: ABBA ABBA CDCCDE
- English Sonnet
- -Wyatt and Surrey came up with the idea
- -Iambic pentameter
- -Form: ABAB CDCD EFEF GG(Cuplet)
Shakespeare's life span
- Shakespeare's Life Span
- -Born April 23, 1564
- -Died April 23, 1616 (This is just speculated. He died that year, but not sure of the day.) This day was chosen because it coincides with St. Georges day
Octave & Stanza
- -Stanza of 4 lines
- Iambic pentameter:
- -ten syllables per line; stressed and unstressed syllables.
- -Rhyme scheme in iambic pentameter sonnet abab cdcd efef gg.
- -Became popular during the Reinaissance (and Shakespeare is known for using it)
Hermia: daughter of Egeus, is in love with Lysander, and is a friend of Helena. Demetrius and Lysander both love Hermia, but Hermia only loves Lysander. Hermia is short, which she is self-conscious about. She runs away with Lysander so they could be together (her father did not approve of Lysander, and wanted her to marry Demetrius). Is married to Lysander by the end of the play.
Lysander: in love with Hermia, is a rival of Demetrius, and is hated by Egeus. He runs away with Hermia so they could be together, but Puck's mischief causes chaos to reign and Lysander to briefly be in love with Helena. Is married to Hermia by the end of the play.
Helena: friend of Hermia, former love of Demetrius (but is now hated by him). Helena is completely in love with Demetrius, no matter how he treats her. Hermia tells Helena of her plan to run away with Lysander. Helena, hoping to make Demetrius fall out of love with Hermia, tells him Hermia's plan. This causes Demetrius to follow Hermia and Lysander into the forest; Helena follows Demetrius. Helena is significantly taller than Hermia. Because of Puck, both Lysander and Demetrius fall in love with Helena. Helena believed both men were playing a joke on her, and became angry/hurt. Puck removes Lysander's love, but leaves Demetrius in love with Helena. Helena and Demetrius are married at the end of the play.
Demetrius: originally loves Helena, then hates Helena and loves Hermia. He dislikes Lysander because Hermia loves him. Egeus wants Hermia to marry Demetrius. He follows Lysander and Hermia into the forest, where Puck causes him to fall in love with Helena. Demetrius' mistreatment of Helena is what causes Oberon to want Puck to make Demetrius fall in love with Helena. Demetrius is married to Helena at the end of the play.
Theseus: duke of Athens, engaged to Hippolyta. Theseus represents power and order throughout the play. He appears only at the beginning and end of the story, and greatly influences the decisions of Hermia. At the beginning of the play, he declares Hermia must marry Demetrius, become a nun, or die. This causes Hermia and Lysander to flee Athens. The play revolves around the days leading up to Hippolyta and his wedding, concluding on their wedding day (where Hermia and Lysander, and Helena and Demetrius are also married). At the end, Theseus allows Hermia and Lysander to marry, partly because Demetrius no longer wants to marry Hermia. Can be paralleled to Oberon, king of the fairies.
Egeus: Hermia's father, dislikes Lysander, and wants Hermia to marry Demetrius. He goes to Theseus to help force Hermia to marry Demetrius. He is the only unhappy character at the end of the play, since Hermia marries Lysander.
Philostrate: works for Theseus, responsible for organizing the entertainment for the duke’s marriage celebration. Did not want the duke to pick "Pyramus and Thisbee" for the play to be performed (but was ignored).
Nick Bottom plays Pyramus in the play “Pyramus and Thisbe” performed by The Mechanicals in A Midsummer Night’s Dream.Nick, a weaver, claims to be a very talented actor, and he thinks that he can play multiple parts in the play. During the ‘night’ scenes of the play, Puck turns Nick’s head into the head of an ass. Oberon also has Puck put Cupid’s flower nectar on Titania’s eyes. When she wakes up she falls in love with Nick, and he shows no interest in her.
Peter Quince, the carpenter, is the author and director of the play “Pyramus and Thisbe” performed by The Mechanicals in A Midsummer Night’s Dream. He struggles to assert himself over Nick Bottom’s insistence upon almost every aspect of the play.
Francis Flute, the bellows-mender, plays Thisbe in the play “Pyramus and Thisbe” performed by The Mechanicals in A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Flute is disappointed that he has to play a woman’s part in the play.
Tom Snout, a tinker, plays a wall that separates the gardens of Pyramus and Thisbe in the play “Pyramus and Thisbe” performed by The Mechanicals in A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Snout is a timid actor.
- Sonnet 20
- The speaker is experiencing strong attraction to a man whom he considers a man so beautiful he is truly a woman with "something extra." The speaker considers his love as something that should only be experienced with a woman so this man is encouraged to treasure the speaker's love but join in a relationship with a woman for he is made for a woman's affections.
- -Brother or Richard
- -Very trusting of his brother Richard, making him easy to kill
- -Richard has Clarence murdered, to get him out of the way for the throne. Richard plants ideas in Edwards head that Clarence is trying to take the throne. Clarence is then arrested & later executed. This is Richard’s first major kill in Richard III.
Gray: Character from Richard III; Dorset and Gray are Elizabeth's sons from her first mariage. Gray is eventually executed by Richard in the play along with Rivers.
Dorset: Marquis Dorset, brother is Lord Grey, they are the Queen’s sons by her first marriage in Richard III.
- Lady Anne
- -Daughter-in-law of the late King Henry the Sixth, widow of his son, Prince Edward
- -Wooed by Richard of Gloucester over the dead body of her father-in-law
- -Does not kill Richard with the knife that he presents her
- -Married to Richard and later killed by him in an attempt to marry Elizabeth
Stanley – character in Shakespeare’s Richard 111 that is also known as the Earl of Derby. Has dream that Richard will behead Hastings but Hastings does not believe him. He would support Richmond in becoming English monarch except Richard holds Stanley’s son as insurance against Stanley’s defection. After Richard’s death, Stanley crowns Richmond as monarch (Richar111).
Richmond – contesting monarch in to Richard Shakespeare’s Richard 111 who establishes his authority as monarch in England after defeating Richard in the battle at the end of the play (Richard 111).
Margaret – widow of the deceased King Henry the Sixth in Shakespeare’s Richard 111. Laments the loss of her husband, whom she accuses Richard of killing prior to the actual play (1.3.118-20). Reproaches Richard and those that assumed positions of authority (such as Queen Elizabeth) after the death of her husband (Richard 111).
Patronage – the provision of financial or other material assistance to a writer by a wealthy person or public institution, in return for entertainment, prestige, or homage (Baldick 187).
Folio – a large size of a book in which the page size results from folding a standard printer’s sheet of paper in half, forming two leaves (i.e. four pages) (Baldick 99).
Quarto – a size of a book or page that results from folding a standard printer’s sheet twice, forming four leaves (i.e. eight pages) (Baldick 210).
Holinshed’s Chronicles – written by Raphael Holinshed, this work is also referred to as the Chronicles of England, Scotland, and Ireland. It is a collaborative work published in several volumes and two editions, the first in 1577, and the second in 1587. It was intended to be a history of England, Scotland, and Ireland. Shakespeare used the revised edition (1587) as the source for most of his history plays and the plot of Macbeth (Wikipedia).
Rude Mechanicals – the band of six laborers from Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream. This group includes Nick Bottom, Peter Quince, Francis Flute, Tom Snout, Snug, and Robin Starveling. In one section of the play, Nick Bottom is seduced—without success—by Titania. The six laborers also put on a performance for the Athenian court (Midsummer).