Psych Exam II

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  1. Two changes that mark childhood to young adulthood
    1. Dramatic increases in height, weight, and body fat distribution

    2. Changes in the reproductive organs that mark sexual maturity, as well as secondary sexual characteristics such as body and facial hair, and the growth of breasts
  2. How many lbs do adolecsent females and males gain during growth spurt?
    • Male - 25
    • Female - 20

    Girls grow about 2 years before boys.

    Girls begin growth spurt at age 11 and reach mature state at 15

    Boys begin at 13 and reach mature stature at 17
  3. How large is the brain by the beginning of adolescence?
    95% of adult size and weight -- myelination and synaptic pruning nearly complete
  4. Primary sex organs
    organs of reproduction
  5. Secondary sex organs
    physical changes not directly linked to reproduction

    Ex: breasts and width of hips
  6. Menarche
    onset of menstration in girls
  7. Spermarche
    first spontaneos ejaculation of sperm containing fluid
  8. What does the hypothalmus do
    produces hormones to the pituitary gland, triggering growth hormones
  9. What stimulates other glands to produce estrogen and testosterone?
    Pituitary gland
  10. What is gentically regulated and is affected by health and nutrition?
    The timing of puberty
  11. How many calories to boys and girls need per day when they are teenagers because of high growth and metabolic rates?
    • G = 2200
    • B = 2700

    1 in every 7 kids are fat.
  12. Anorexia
    irrational fear of being overweight - distorded body image - 15% of adolescents with an die
  13. Bulimia
    binging and purging or use of laxatives
  14. Threats to adolescent well -being
    auto accidents, firearms, high risk behavior death
  15. How are adolescents working memory and processing speed?
    both adults levels are achieved during adolescents
  16. Kohlbergs Theory
    • Preconventional level - moral reasoning based on external forces
    • Conventional - look to societys norms for moral guidance
    • Post conventional - morals are based on personal moral code
  17. Cultural differences in moral reasoning
    eastern cultures put caring for others and familial obligation about individual rights.
  18. Carol Gilligans theory
    Argues that Kohlbergs emphasis on justice is more applicable to men than women.

    Primary emphasis for women is caring.

    • Stage one - preoccupation with own needs
    • stage two - caring for others
    • stage three - caring in all human relationships and denuciation of violence/exploitation
  19. What are role transition?
    when individuals assume new responsibilities and duties.
  20. What is the most common non-western transition marking adulthood?
  21. Non western cultures adult mark for boys and girls
    • Boys - being able to provide, protect and impregnate
    • Girls - menarche
  22. Average age of US college students
  23. When are you an adult?
    Somewhere between 18 and 25.
  24. Physical strength in both sexes peak in...
    late 20s and early 30s --- vision begins to decline in late 20s
  25. Leading causes of death in the US between 24-44
    Accidents, cancer, heart disease, suicide, AIDS
  26. What is nicotine?
    known potent teratogen
  27. What is binge drinking for males and females?
    • Male - more than 5 drinks in a row
    • Female - 4 or more
  28. What is BMI
    ratio of body weight and height - recommended to less than 25
  29. Primary mental abilities include...
    number, word fluency, verbal meaning, inductive reasoning, spatial orientation
  30. What is fluid intelligence
    ability to be a flexible thinker
  31. What is crystallized intelligence
    knowledge acquired by life experience
  32. Postformal thought
    thinking that solutions must be realistic and that things are often not clear cut
  33. Stages of development of reflective judgment accoring to kitchener and king
    optimal level of development - highest level of thinking capable

    Skill acquisition is the gradual, haphhazard process of learning new abilities
  34. Implicit stereotypes
    beliefs that we may not be aware of but may affect our behavior
  35. stereotype threat
    fear of being judged by a negative sterotype baout a group to which one belongs
  36. Determing importance of age related social belief by examining..
    content, strength and likelihood that the beliefs will be activated
  37. Social clock
    expectation that future events will correspond to a certain age or date
  38. Self concept
    result of integrating life story into a sense of self - influences how we interpret experiences and shape our sense of identity
  39. 4 types of control
    • 1. from within oneself
    • 2. over oneself
    • 3. over environment
    • 4. from environment
  40. Primary control
    behavior aimed at affecting external world
  41. secondary control
    behavior that is intended to affect the internal world
Card Set
Psych Exam II
Exam II
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