Psych Exam II
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Two changes that mark childhood to young adulthood
1. Dramatic increases in height, weight, and body fat distribution
2. Changes in the reproductive organs that mark sexual maturity, as well as secondary sexual characteristics such as body and facial hair, and the growth of breasts
How many lbs do adolecsent females and males gain during growth spurt?
Girls grow about 2 years before boys.
Girls begin growth spurt at age 11 and reach mature state at 15
Boys begin at 13 and reach mature stature at 17
How large is the brain by the beginning of adolescence?
95% of adult size and weight -- myelination and synaptic pruning nearly complete
Primary sex organs
organs of reproduction
Secondary sex organs
physical changes not directly linked to reproduction
Ex: breasts and width of hips
onset of menstration in girls
first spontaneos ejaculation of sperm containing fluid
What does the hypothalmus do
produces hormones to the pituitary gland, triggering growth hormones
What stimulates other glands to produce estrogen and testosterone?
What is gentically regulated and is affected by health and nutrition?
The timing of puberty
How many calories to boys and girls need per day when they are teenagers because of high growth and metabolic rates?
1 in every 7 kids are fat.
irrational fear of being overweight - distorded body image - 15% of adolescents with an die
binging and purging or use of laxatives
Threats to adolescent well -being
auto accidents, firearms, high risk behavior death
How are adolescents working memory and processing speed?
both adults levels are achieved during adolescents
- Preconventional level - moral reasoning based on external forces
- Conventional - look to societys norms for moral guidance
- Post conventional - morals are based on personal moral code
Cultural differences in moral reasoning
eastern cultures put caring for others and familial obligation about individual rights.
Carol Gilligans theory
Argues that Kohlbergs emphasis on justice is more applicable to men than women.
Primary emphasis for women is caring.
- Stage one - preoccupation with own needs
- stage two - caring for others
- stage three - caring in all human relationships and denuciation of violence/exploitation
What are role transition?
when individuals assume new responsibilities and duties.
What is the most common non-western transition marking adulthood?
Non western cultures adult mark for boys and girls
- Boys - being able to provide, protect and impregnate
- Girls - menarche
Average age of US college students
When are you an adult?
Somewhere between 18 and 25.
Physical strength in both sexes peak in...
late 20s and early 30s --- vision begins to decline in late 20s
Leading causes of death in the US between 24-44
Accidents, cancer, heart disease, suicide, AIDS
What is nicotine?
known potent teratogen
What is binge drinking for males and females?
- Male - more than 5 drinks in a row
- Female - 4 or more
What is BMI
ratio of body weight and height - recommended to less than 25
Primary mental abilities include...
number, word fluency, verbal meaning, inductive reasoning, spatial orientation
What is fluid intelligence
ability to be a flexible thinker
What is crystallized intelligence
knowledge acquired by life experience
thinking that solutions must be realistic and that things are often not clear cut
Stages of development of reflective judgment accoring to kitchener and king
optimal level of development - highest level of thinking capable
Skill acquisition is the gradual, haphhazard process of learning new abilities
beliefs that we may not be aware of but may affect our behavior
fear of being judged by a negative sterotype baout a group to which one belongs
Determing importance of age related social belief by examining..
content, strength and likelihood that the beliefs will be activated
expectation that future events will correspond to a certain age or date
result of integrating life story into a sense of self - influences how we interpret experiences and shape our sense of identity
4 types of control
- 1. from within oneself
- 2. over oneself
- 3. over environment
- 4. from environment
behavior aimed at affecting external world
behavior that is intended to affect the internal world
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