*Discuss the way that the climatic and geographic environments of Mesopotamia, China and Africa have contributed to and affected the development of complex civilizations in these areas.
China is isolated from the rest of the Eastern Hemisphere by formidable barriers including the Himalaya mountain range, the Pamir and Tian Mountains, the Takla Makan Desert, the Gobi Desert, and the treeless grassy hills of the Mongolian steppe. Although China’s separation was not total, trade goods, people, and ideas moved back and forth between china, india, and central asia, in many respects its development was distinctive. Most is covered in mountains, making overland travel, transport and communications difficult and slow. The yellow and Yangzi rivers facilitate east-west movement. Dense populations arise along river valleys and population is sparse in the Mongolian steppe, deserts, and high plateau of Tibet. The climate goes from dry in the north to subtrop forests in the south. The monsoons cause heavy rainfall in the summer for the southern region, while rainfall in the north is sporadic. This type of landscape demanded efforts of large groups of people to coordinate agriculture. Forests needed to be cleared, floods need channels, and reservoirs were needed for droughts.