History

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Author:
ichiban2008
ID:
113301
Filename:
History
Updated:
2011-10-30 23:35:15
Tags:
history mesopotamia africa rome china
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Test 1
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  1. *How and why do political and social structures and institutions differ in the civilizations of ancient Mesopotamia, Rome, and China? Be sure to include specific details about at least three (3) regions and to include appropriate comparative statements about the regions in your response.
    Both Meso and Rome have theatre of statecraft

    Both China and Meso do not have king as a god

    Both Chinga and Meso have the mandate of Heaven

    Both Meso and Rome have strong governments just set up differently
  2. *How and why do political and socialstructures and institutions differ in the civilizations of ancient Mesopotamia, Rome, and China?
    • Culture
    • T.O.S.
    • elite used architecture, coinage, and art to justify their legitimacy
    • Politics
    • Strong gov
    • city states
    • each city has its own political structure
    • kings is the "shepard on Earth"
    • administration of royal authority
    • system of evidence and witnesses for judicial processes
    • Religion
    • kings not a god
    • polytheistic
    • omniscent/omnipresent
    • care and feeding for the gods
    • delegation of authority through religious personell...like the mandate of heaven from China
    • if you are sick, its because you have been bad...
  3. *How and why do political and socialstructures and institutions differ in the civilizations of ancient Mesopotamia, Rome, and China?
    • Culture
    • T.O.S.
    • "Bread and Circuses"
    • no work, party, free food, gladiator fights
    • did this to bring the people together with the senators
    • coinage to personify power
    • Politics
    • Strong gov
    • could vote, but could not propose law
    • term limits (ignored by Julius)
    • both citizens and non citizens could become slaves
    • Hieracy of gov
    • Slaves/Freed People/Common/Equestrian/ Senators/Imperial Domus
    • Religion
    • King seen as a god, but eventually, Christianity becomes legal religion
    • has an official state religion
    • law said you must worship, illegal not to worship in major ceremonies
    • worked great for poly, but not for mono...hince the fight with the Christians...
  4. *How and why do political and socialstructures and institutions differ in the civilizations of ancient Mesopotamia, Rome, and China?
    • Politics
    • Mandate of Heaven
    • if in charge, power is ok in the eyes of the gods
    • bad weather = bad ruler
    • Due to Warring States Period, changing of gov was common
    • Zhou
    • feudal society
    • mility controls the land and the people on the land
    • Tang
    • emphasis on infrastructure
    • roads
    • grand canal
    • indicates a good gov
    • one purpose...internal security
    • Religion
    • King is not a god, just first of equals
    • Confucious
    • Legalism
    • Daoism
  5. *Discuss the way that the climatic and geographic environments of Mesopotamia, China and Africa have contributed to and affected the development of complex civilizations in these areas.
    Because of the unpredictable nature of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers and the weather, the peoples of ancient Meso saw the world as a hazardous place where humans were at the mercy of the forces of nature. The world meso itself means ‘land between the rivers.’ The meso civilization developed in the plain along the rivers. The floods could be sudden and violent and tend to come at the wrong time for grain agriculture. The floods would sometimes cause the rivers to suddenly change course, cutting off fields and population centers from supplies of water and avenues of communication. Agriculture would not come til around 5,000 BC. Since agri requires annual rainfall of at least 8 inches, it depended on irrigation in hot, dry southern Mesopotamia. At first, the people probably took advantage of the flooding, but later, they would need to learn how to build canals to carry water to more distant parcels of land.
  6. *Discuss the way that the climatic and geographic environments of Mesopotamia, China and Africa have contributed to and affected the development of complex civilizations in these areas.
    China is isolated from the rest of the Eastern Hemisphere by formidable barriers including the Himalaya mountain range, the Pamir and Tian Mountains, the Takla Makan Desert, the Gobi Desert, and the treeless grassy hills of the Mongolian steppe. Although China’s separation was not total, trade goods, people, and ideas moved back and forth between china, india, and central asia, in many respects its development was distinctive. Most is covered in mountains, making overland travel, transport and communications difficult and slow. The yellow and Yangzi rivers facilitate east-west movement. Dense populations arise along river valleys and population is sparse in the Mongolian steppe, deserts, and high plateau of Tibet. The climate goes from dry in the north to subtrop forests in the south. The monsoons cause heavy rainfall in the summer for the southern region, while rainfall in the north is sporadic. This type of landscape demanded efforts of large groups of people to coordinate agriculture. Forests needed to be cleared, floods need channels, and reservoirs were needed for droughts.
  7. *Discuss the way that the climatic and geographic environments of Mesopotamia, China and Africa have contributed to and affected the development of complex civilizations in these areas.
    Many geographic obstacles impede access to and movement within Africa. The Sahara makes life seem impossible, and if it were not for the Nile, life in the Sahara would be impossible. During the period of time before the dryness of the Sahara, travel was quite easy, but once the dryness came, travel became a slowly shrinking process due to the scarcity of water. Due to high rapids, the use of the Senegal, Niger, and Zaire rivers for navigation was limited as well. From the southern tip of Cape Cod to the Sahara, a traveler would go from flat, semi arid steppes of the Sahel to tropical savanna covered by long grasses and scattered forest, and then to tropical rain forest on the lower Niger and in the Zaire Basis. The rain forest gives way to savanna, followed by more steppe and desert, and finally by a region of temperate highlands at the southern extremity. East-West travel is comparatively easy in the steppe and savanna regions, but difficult in the equatorial rain-forest belt and across the mountains and deep rift valleys. Because of the dry hot climate in the north, the north traded salt for gold dust in the south. The south used the salt to preserve their meat subtropical climate while the north used the gold to become rich. The people who lived in the desert of North Africa could easily mine salt, but not gold. They craved the precious metal that would add so much to their personal splendor and prestige. These mutual needs led to the establishment of long-distance trade routes that connected very different cultures.
  8. *Discuss how the three religious/philosophical
    systems of Daoism, Legalism, and Confucianism sought to solve the problems that China encountered during the Warring States period.
    • associated with the thinker Laozi
    • classic of the way of virtue
    • close to Confuciusism; but not mirror image
    • geared more towards the inner person
    • transcendent
    • reality beyond the reality you can see
    • not the type of philosophy to organize a government/society

    • one with nature
    • nature is calm, so you should be too
    • much harder to enforce since you can't enforce it in some ways
    • solution to religion; not political leaders, just religious leaders
    • focus is on yourself; so to get it started, you would have start at the level of the individual
  9. *Discuss how the three religious/philosophicalsystems of Daoism, Legalism, and Confucianism sought to solve the problems that China encountered during the Warring States period.
    • focused on law and order
    • punished those who did wrong
    • death
    • rewarded those who did right
    • not cruel people; but to get people in line, you need to come down hard
    • people need to be told what to do; if you
    • don't, bad things happen
    • people, by nature, are evil, and only do good because of the consequences of evil
  10. *Discuss how the three religious/philosophicalsystems of Daoism, Legalism, and Confucianism sought to solve the problems that China encountered during the Warring States period.
    • no God involved; human to human
    • ancestor worship is involved though…
    • deals with morality
    • against the legalist though
    • focuses of the right of the individual than the wrong of the individual
    • don't impose the law with threats; people don't think about the law, they think about the punishment
    • why you need to do right; not just that you need to do whats right so you don't get punished
    • leaders very important
    • lead by example
    • leader should be moral
    • modest in speech (XIV.29)
    • virtous (not concerned with material possessions)
    • don't boast; people will recognize good (XV.20)

    • XIII.6: The Master said, "When a prince's personal conduct is correct, his government is effective
    • without the issuing of orders. If his personal conduct is not correct, he may issue orders, but they will not be followed."
    • philiopeity
    • people above owe beneficence to the people below
    • people below in return owe the people above obedience
    • legalism goes one way; philipo goes both ways
    • hierarchy; but reciprocity is definitely there
    • mandate of heaven involved

    • XV.23:
    • Tzu-kung asked, saying, "Is there one world which may serve as a rule of practice for all one's life?" The Master said, "Is not reciprocity such a word? What you do not want done to yourself, do not do to others."
    • cure to the problem?
    • there is a corneal of goodness in everybody (VII.29) (XVII.2)
    • teacher is the one who keeps people knowing whats good (VIII.12) -
    • legalism says that by nature, people are evil; Confucianism says that by nature, people are good

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