Rome to Gothic architecture cards. Pictures and dates.
Basilica of Trajam (100 CE) Civic Empirical Roman construction. Located in Rome.· (part of the Forum of Trajan); A long narrow structure apse
on two ends a curving space. Central space a nave and isle the sides. Post and lintel structure system. Tradeated. Control and isolate indvidual from the the world.
system and had a wooden roof over the nave and a shed over the aisles to allow
windows. Bringing in light from the story. The columns are part of the
structural system. Singular monument the Trajan. Made of marble and internal
staircase with a platform at the top. Spiral of sculpture with Trajan
Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine (307-312 CE). Located in Rome. Arch
is made from a series of stones and bricks laid radically called voussoir.
Barrel Vault - the most basic kind. (
pier and arch) structural system with trabeated
decoration; built originally by Emperor Maxentius and remodeled by Emperor
Constantine; housed the colossal statue of
The Markets of Trajan (100CE) Rome.
It represents the ancient equivalent of the modern shopping centre, housing no less than 150 shops and offices.The offices are believed to have been used to administer the corn dole.Strores were called Tavernas. Originally located across from the Forum of Trajan, it was located behind the exedra of a courtyard in that Forum and was itself designed as an exedra. There were three levels of shops, the lower level opening up to the hemispherical facade, the second level opening into the interior where there was a large vaulted indoor market hall, and the third level (set back) opening at the rear to a street above on the hill. Macellum - Market place.
Lepcis Magna, Libya (1 CE).
Main stage is called the Orchestra.
cavea (seating); orchestra, scaenae frons (“front of stageset”).
It is a civic Roman emprial structure made to entrtain the people of the empire so they won't rebel against the emperor.
Theater of Marcellus (1st BCE) Rome.
theater of Marcellus begun by Julius caeser It is was the protorype of the famous Coloosseum.
The colesseum (80 CE) Rome. Also called the Flavian Amphitheater. Unlike earlier Greek theatres that were built into hillsides, the Colosseum is an entirely free-standing structure. It derives its basic exterior and interior architecture from that of two Roman theatres back to back, The Colosseum's huge crowd capacity made it essential that the venue could be filled or evacuated quickly. Its architects adopted solutions very similar to those used in modern stadiums to deal with the same problem. The amphitheatre was ringed by eighty entrances at ground level, 76 of which were used by ordinary spectators (50K) Each entrance and exit was numbered, as was each staircase. All four axial entrances were richly decorated with painted stucco reliefs, of which fragments survive.
Spectators were given tickets in the form of numbered pottery shards, which directed them to the appropriate section and row. They accessed their seats viavomitoria (singular vomitorium), passageways that opened into a tier of seats from below or behind.
City Gate, Turin, Italy (16 BCE)
he structure served as one of four Roman city gates, which allowed access from north to secondart main street of a Roman town.
Porta Nigra, located in Trier Germany ( late 3rd century)
the Porta Nigra was part of a system of four city gates, one of which stood at each side of the roughly rectangular Roman city. The Porta Nigra guarded the northern entry to the Roman city, The gates stood at the ends of the two main streets of the Roman Trier, one of which led north-south and the other east-west. Of these gates, only the Porta Nigra still exists today
pier and arch structural system (arcuated) with an overlaid post and lintel decorative system (trabeated).
Arch of Titus (81 CE), Forum Romanum, Rome.Free
standing monuments composed of single openings or three openings. They are
linked to routes or roads. Built by emperors. Singular triumphal arch almost a
barrel vault covered in decorations.
Arch of Septimius Severus (203 CE) Rome.
Triple arch monument.
Free Standing Form.
Used to commemorate triumpmhs and elebrations and soliders would pass under the arch to celebrate their victory.
Built by wealthy families that wanted to commemorate their name
Triumphal Arch of the Sergius Family (29-27 BCE!) Croatia.
Triunphal Arch in Orange France. 21 CE.
Punt du Gard ,Aquadcut in Nimes, France (50 CE)
The most important civic structure. Could not have communal city without clean water. Water was brought to the city with this system from a mountain stream at a higher elevation in the country side.
The width of the arches get narrower at the top made of solid curry limestone rock
dried construction. Stands with its own weight. Lined with mortar and sealed with concrete to waterproof the walls.
Aqueduct in Segovia Spain (1 CE).
Temple of Fortuna Virlis (2 BCE), Rome.
Precedence: Parthanon in Greece
Proportions a lot smaller
Roman temples have a clear front and back. Stairs and colonnade. Columns attached to wall. Porches were used for ceremonial and public speeches. Temple interiors had civic materials used by Romans included base constructed in concrete covered in travertine a form of limestone the base of the column. Tufa what all of Rome is mostly
built from. And covered with stucco. Always concealing structural materials.
The ionic order was borrowed from the Greeks. Greece and Etruria is where the
Romans get their ideas.
Temple of Vesta (1 BCE) Rome.
Presedence coming from the Greek tholos temples.
Borrowed the circular form of the structure. Has an axial and circular planning. Axial for the distinct street entrance and exit (unlike greek temples where entrance is available from any direction).
The pantheon, Rome ( 118-128 CE)
The pantheon. Dedicated to all the gods. Composed of several parts rectangular porches in the front and lobby narthex type and round cella constructed of brick and concrete and the dome constructed
of concrets. The oculus an opening at the top of the dome. Hollow sections named cofers. The cella is a perfect circle. 240 ft wide. The wall is not a solid wall in the interiors niches could be visible. Pier and vault system is what holds the building held up by
The Masoleum of Agustus (28BCE)
Inspired by Etruscan tumulus tombs. The etruscans were the original habitants of the rome and were a big influence on the romans.
Enormous cylindrical base. Radiating
walls covered in earth and planted Cyprus trees typical in cemeteries. Temple
like structure built on top.
The tomb of Caius Cestius (1BCE)
Pyramide shaped structure borrowed from the eygptians.
Made of conceret and covered with marble.
Proportions are off than the original pyrmaids and scale is very different.
The tomb of the Baker (1 BCE) Rome.
The incorporation of the cylinders, perhaps imitating kneading-machines or grain-measuring vessels as suggested above furthers the association with Bakery. A relief frieze representing stages of bread production runs along the top of the tomb.
The Catacombs in Rome (2-5 cent CE) All the regular people would be buried in
catacombs that were underground. dug under the tufa much easier to carve and over time tufa hardens. Tunnels that contained loculus on the outline where the dead would be layed out and covered with a slab. Loculus means little pocket.
Arcosoium carving. Families would have spaces carved out. From the natural
rock. The space is carbed to imitate real architecture. Fresco decoration.
Hadrian's Villa in Tivoli Italy (118-33CE)
The Villa shows echoes of many different architectural orders, mostly Greek and Egyptian. Hadrian, a very well travelled emperor, borrowed these designs, such as the caryatids by the Canopus, along with the statues beside them depicting the Egyptian dwarf and fertility god, Bes. A Greek so called "Maritime Theatre" exhibits classical ionic style, whereas the domes of the main buildings as well as the corinthian arches of the Canopus and Serapeum show clear Roman architecture.
Complex comprised of 30 structures has definiste axial planning which is very Roman for the easy organization and expension around the axis.
House of Pansa, Pompaii Italy (2 BCE) Peristyle
Orthogonal or grid layout. Eary roman city of Pompeii. Courtyared houses that
foucused on the interior, lined on one single axis the first one is and atrium and pools of water.
atrium, peristyle (impluvium= central pool), cubiculae (bedrooms), alae (niches for statues of house gods), tablinum (formal receiving room), vegetable garden; fresco decoration.
House of Vetii, Pompaii Italy (1 BCE)
Introduced for the first time the idea of prespective painting on the wall stucco and decroations.
No windows light came from
above. They painted all the wals to make the spaces lighter and larger. atrium, peristyle, alae,
service quarters with their own atrium, kitchen with hearth.
Rectangular panels that were pigment on different colors and plasters. And
different styles panels that had small figures and really large panels that had
large paintings, illusionary paintings. The idea was to expand the space to
give an impression that the space was large. Expanding the space through manipulation