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Dura-Europos also boasts the oldest known Christian church. The church occupied a typical Roman upper-class house centered around a columned courtyard with an open room (atrium). In the center of the courtyard was a pool (impluvium). At the opposite end from the entrance was a raised area (tablinum) containing a table and used by the family as a reception area and for ceremonial functions.rooms converted into a meeting hall and baptistery (font: baptismal pool, covered by an arcosolium).
- Santa Sabina, Rome (422-32 BC)
- Introdues the elements comprising the church just as Nave, Aisles, apse, narthex, atrium, spoils, capital columns literally taken from othe building and re-used in the church.
- Old St. Peter's. Rome
- Composed of two different basilicas and are placed in right angles of each other. And transept and on the other end there is an apse. Wooden roof with thin walls and foundation. Modified Latin cross that was used many times. Two separate function a funerary basilica with people that were buried beneath the floor and the other a mortem. Devoted to pilgrims who would come to visit to place to pay homage to St. Peter. Becomes very common in Christian architecture. Was the largest church in Europe until the 12th century.
Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, Turkey (532-537) architects are: antemius of Talles and Isidurus of Miletus; first dome: pendentive dome, collapsed after an earthquake in 557; second dome, 20 ft. higher, dome on pendentives; spandrel, basket capitals, mosaics. Cross-in-square (inscribed cross), most common Byzantine church plan.
- The first mosque in Medina. Mohammad's house 627-32
- Mecca, Kaaba (“Black Stone”): holiest site for Muslims; all face Mecca in prayer; mosque later built around the Kaaba.
Mosques (prayer halls)
- Prayer five times per day, sets the daily routine of people in the Islamic world;
- orientation (must face Mecca)
- form (more wide than deep—social
- minaret: tower from where muezzin calls faithful to
- mihrab: usually a small apse in the qibla wall (the wall
- facing Mecca) to indicate direction of prayer;
- mimbar: pulpit used to deliver sermons to the congregation; prayer lines and rugs (used to arrange
- congregation into rows [like pews in a church]; ablution: ritual cleaning before prayer;
- madrasa: school attached to the mosque, housed
- in a separate building.
The great mosque in Damascus Syria. 700-715
The great Mosque in Cordoba, Spain 8-10 cent.
- The mosque of Suleyman the magnificent. (1550)
- Architects: Koca Mimar Sinan.
- Pilgrimage Churches: four major routes from France
- to Santiago de Compostella (St. James of the Field) in north-western Spain.
- Conques, Ste. Foi (St. Faith), begun in 1052, sculpture of Last Judgment in tympanum,Latin
- cross plan, continuous aisles and pilgrims' galleries, chevet (apse, ambulatory, radiating chapels); bay system. Heavy structures and bulky structure take massive volume.
- Fontenay,France, Abbey 1139-47
- Cistercian Monasteries: homogeneous building type
- because the Cistercian Rule was enforced in all Cistercian monasteries in
- western Europe; Rule is based on the ideals of poverty and self-sufficiency.
- Notre dame, Laon France
- begun in the 1150's with the south transept;
- west facade completed
- in 1215; four story nave elevation: arcade, gallery, triforium, clearstory.
- Nave: 75 ft. high, 35 ft. wide.
- Gothic architecture extends
- technically from 1130 (the beginning of the construction of the abbey church of
- St. Denis) to ca. 1500-1600; characterized by pointed arches, ribbed
- vaults and flying buttresses.
- Beauvais, Cathedral of St. Pierre (St. Peter), present church begun in 1225; never completed (Carolingian church, built in the 9th century, still survives); choir completed by 1272, but original quadripartite vaults collapsed in 1284; choir rebuilt with major modifications of the design (sexpartite vaults with additional piers) from 1284-1322; transept built 1500-48; tower over crossing with a wooden spire (502 ft high) built 1558-69,
- but it collapsed in 1573...and then they gave up. Choir: 157.5 ft high, 48 ft wide.
- high gothic period