Extra Information to know for Herp. Exam

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  1. What part of the vertebra presists in most fish?
  2. Centrum
    Makes vertebra stronger. Made of all bone; except the center, which is the notochord.
  3. Processes
    muscle attachment
  4. The centrum develops into several pieces. Give the name of the pieces that make up the centrum.
    • 1-hypocentrum (regresses)
    • 2-pleurocentrum (expands)
  5. We first see this type of vertebra in a group of fish called:
    What is the term used for the vertebra?
    • Rhachitomes Fish
    • Rhachitmous vertebra
  6. Who has rhachitomous vertebras?
    All amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals have Rhachitomus vertebra
  7. Amphibians have two new body regions. What are they?
    Cervical and Sacral
  8. Amphibians have rib like projections for muscle attachment. The only vertebrate that does not have projections is the cervical vertebra.
  9. The cervical vertebra has two little cup like regions that fit into some little bumps on the back of the skull. The skull and the cervical vertebra (atlas) articulate together so that the amphibians can lift their head up and down.
  10. Sacral vertebra allows for what to articulate?
    Sacral vertebra allows the vertebra column to articulate with the pelvic girdle. (It attaches the pelvic girdle and the legs to the vertebra column.)
  11. Single atlas
    • has no ribs
    • raises head up and down
  12. Single sacral vertebra
    articulates with ilium of the pelvic girdle
  13. Pelvis of all tetrapods made up of
    Pubis, Ischium, and Ilium
  14. Urostyle in anurans
    • fusion of caudal vertebrae
    • offers support during hopping
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Extra Information to know for Herp. Exam
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