Food science exam 2 (from notes)

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  1. vacuole
    • portion
    • of the cell containing most of the water, flavoring components, nutrients, and
    • flavonoid pigments
  2. plastids
    • organelles
    • in the cytoplasm that contain pigments or starch
  3. cellulose
    • cell wall constituent
    • doesn't break down with cooking
  4. hemicellulose
    • cell wall matrix
    • softens with cooking, especially in alkaline
  5. changes with matuation (fruits and veggies)
    • vegetables increase cell wall - toughen
    • fruit changes in pectice substances - soften with ripening
  6. Respiration
    • O2 uptake
    • rate determines shelf life
    • Control Atmosphere, Q10 rule
  7. Q10 rule
    decrease rate in half for every 10 degrees farenheit
  8. Climateric
    period of maximum respiratory rate just prior to ful ripening on many fleshy fruits
  9. cliamateric fruit
    • ripen after picked
    • ex. apples, bananas, tomato, avacado
  10. non climateric fruit
    • harvest ripe, will not ripen post harvest
    • ex. grapes, oranges
  11. The ripening hormone is
    • H2C=CH2 (ethylene)
    • increase protein synthesis
    • protoectinase
    • pectinmethylesterase
  12. protopectin
    • form of pectic substances found in unripe
    • fruits an some vegetables; a methylated, very long polymer of galacturonic acid
  13. controlled atmosphere stprage
    • plants respire- take in O2 and give off CO2
    • limiting O2 or flooding with CO2 will slow respiration and increase shelf life
  14. picments aka
  15. Fat soluble phytonutrients
    • cartoenoids
    • chlorophylls
  16. Water soluble phyto nutrients
    • Flavanoids
    • anthoxanthins
    • anthocyanins
  17. Carotenoids
    • class
    • of pigments contributing red, orange, or yellow colors as a result of the
    • resonance provided by the isoprene polymers
  18. chlorophyl a
    • blue-green,
    • more abundant form of chlorophyll; the chlorophyll form in which the R group is
    • a methyl group
  19. chlorophyl b
    • yellowish-green
    • form of chlorophyll in which the R group is an aldehyde group
  20. Flavonoids
    • group of chemically related pigments usually
    • containing 2 phenyl groups connected by an intermediate 5- or 6-membered ring
  21. Anthoxanthins
    • phenolic
    • compounds contributing white to yellow color and some flavor to plants;
    • flavonioid pigment with no charge in the central ring
  22. Anthocyanin
    • flavonoid pigment in which the oxygen in the
    • central ring is positively charged
  23. Ways to control enzymatic oxidatice browning
    • substrate
    • enzyme- temperature, pH
    • salt, sulfur
    • Oxygen
  24. FIbers
    • insoluble
    • soluble
  25. GUms
    hydrocolloids composed of large polymers of monosaccharides (not glucose)
  26. xanthan gum
    • synthesized microbial
    • used in gluten free products
  27. agar
    used in vegan products
  28. carrageenan
    stabilizer in ice cream
  29. total fiber=
    total fiber = Dietary fiber + functional fiber
  30. Two key components of simple fats are__________ and ______________- linked to form an ester
    Two key components of simple fats are glycerol and fatty acids- linked to form an ester
  31. glycerol has 3 __________ (alcohol or OH) groups.
    glycerol has 3 hydroxyl (alcohol or OH) groups.
  32. Fatty acids
    • organic
    • acid containing usually between four and 24 carbon atoms
    • in simple fats are organcs compounds with the characteristic carboxyl (-COOH) group
  33. Saturated fatty acids
    fatty acids contain all the hydrogen atoms it is chemically possible for them to have
  34. monounsaturated fatty acid
    a fatty acid containing one double bond
  35. polyunsaturated fatty acid
    a fatty acid two or more double bonds
  36. Saturated fat is a precursor to
    serum cholesterol
  37. Monoglyceride
    • lipid consisting of one fatty acid esterified
    • to one of the hydroxyl groups of glycerol
  38. monoacylglyceride
    • chemical name used to clarify the ester formed
    • with one fatty acid and glycerol
  39. Diglyceride
    • simple
    • fat containing 2 fatty acids esterified to glycerol
  40. Triglyceride
    • simple fat containing 3 fatty acids esterified to glycerol; the most common form of simple fat
    • this is the maximum number that can exist in a compound
    • there are no additional hydroxyl groups to which a fatty acid can be esterified
  41. oxidative rancidity
    • development
    • of off flavors and odors in fats as a result of the uptake of oxygen and the
    • formation of peroxides, hydroperoxides, and numerous other compounds
    • involves the uptake of oxygen at a double bond, in an unsaturated fatty acid, in a fat.
    • facilitated by presence of certain metals and by light and/or warm temperature
  42. rancidity
    • chemical
    • deterioration of a fat caused by the uptake of oxygen (oxidation) or water
    • (hydrolysis)
  43. free radical
    • unstable
    • compound containing an unpaired electron
  44. antioxidant
    • compound that can retard oxidative rancidity
    • by providing hydrogen to block formation of free radicals in fatty acids or by
    • scavenging metal or oxygen
  45. peroxide
    compound with oxygen attached to oxygen
  46. lipase
    • enzyme
    • that catalyzes the hydrolysis of fat to yield free fatty acids and glycerol
  47. lipolysis
    • reaction
    • of a molecule of water with a fat molecule to release a free fatty acid in the
    • presence of lipase or heat
  48. Hydrolytic
    • lipolysis
    • (hydrolysis) of lipids to free fatty acids and glycerol, often catalyzed
    • by lipases
  49. Reversion
    • development
    • of an off flavor (beany or fishy) in soybean, rapeseed or various fish oils as
    • a result of a reaction involving only very minor amounts of oxygen
  50. Acrolein
    • a
    • highly irritating and volatile aldehyde formed when glycerol is heated to the
    • point at which two molecules of water split from it
  51. Polymerization
    • formation
    • of a variety of polymers, including simple dimers and trimers when free fatty
    • acids are subjected to intense heat for a long period during frying
  52. Acrylamide
    • carcinogen
    • formed from natural sugars and asparagines in starchy fried foods and also in
    • baked products
  53. Deodorizing-
    • using
    • steam distillation or other suitable procedure to remove low molecular weight
    • aldehydes, ketones, peroxides, hydrocarbons and three fatty acids that would be
    • detrimental to the aroma and flavor of fat
  54. Winterizing
    • refining
    • step in which whales are killed carefully to precipitate and remove fractions
    • with high melting points that would interfere with the flow properties of salad
    • dressings or other products containing what
  55. Fractionation
    • process
    • of separating whales into fractions using control temperature to crystallize
    • fatty acids with high melting points and separate them from oils with lower
    • melting point
  56. Hydrogenation
    • addition
    • of hydrogen to an unsaturated fatty acid in the presence of a catalyst to
    • reduce it unsaturation of the molecule and raised the melting point
  57. Tempering
    • removing
    • heat resulting from crystallization of fat and maintaining a selected
    • temperature to promote the formation of stable, desirable crystals
  58. peroxide value
    • measures oxidation of patassium iodide in the presence of a fat.
    • indicates deteriorization due to oxidative rancidity
  59. hydrogenation
    alters the melting point of fatty acids by increasing their saturation with hydrogen
  60. reduced fat of reduced calorie diet margerine
    no more than 60% oil; 25% calorie reduction
  61. light/lower fat margerine
    no more than 40% oil; 50% or more calorie reduction
  62. fat free margerine
    less than 0.5 g fat per serving
  63. Functional rooles of proteins in foods
    • Nutritional - based on protein quality and amino acid profile
    • form a stable foam
    • thickening agent
    • textural properties of baked products
  64. Composition of milk
    • water
    • protein
    • fat
    • carbohydrate
    • minerals- calcium and phosphorous
    • vitamins - A, D, Riboflavin
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Food science exam 2 (from notes)
exam 2 notes
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