Chap6

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tsiemg
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113395
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Chap6
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2011-10-31 13:24:35
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Creative Critical Thinking
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Chap 6 Creative & Critical Thinking
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  1. Creative Thinking
    Encouraging use of hunch, intuition, insight, and fantasy to promote creativity
  2. Brainstorming
    A procedure designed to tap members’ creativity by asking them to generate as many ideas as possible without evaluation. Explicitly suspends criticism
  3. Synectics
    A procedure designed to stimulate creative thinking by using metaphors and looking for similarities in different things. Works by attempting to make the familiar unfamiliar
  4. Mind Mapping
    A technique encouraging radiant thinking produced by free association. Seeks to avoid linear thinking
  5. Evidence
    Facts, data, opinions, and other information that back claim or conclusion
  6. Arguments
    Claims supported by evidence and reasoning
  7. Critical Thinking
    Systematic thinking using evidence, reasoning, and logic to promote soundness. Involves a concentrated effort to assess the value of ideas and conclusions by gathering relevant information, examining that information carefully, and judging the reasoning that supports the conclusions and decisions.
  8. Open-Minded
    Willing to consider new information and ideas, even if they contradict previous beliefs
  9. Probing Question
    Questions designed to help critical thinking by examining information and reasoning in more debt
  10. Facts
    Something that can be verified by observation and is not arguable
  11. Opinions
    Inference that go beyond facts and contain some degree of probability
  12. Ambiguous
    a term that has more than one possible meaning
  13. Fallacies
    mistakes in reasoning and faulty reasoning
  14. Overgeneralization
    A conclusion not supported by enough data
  15. Either-or Thinking
    Asking members to choose between only two options as if no other choice existed
  16. Analogies
    Comparisons that help clarify ideas and issues
  17. SYMLOG
    The System for the Multiple-level Observation of Groups, a theory and methodolgy that produces a diagram of relationshops among group members
  18. Devil's Advocate
    A group member who formally is expected to challenge ideas to foster critical thinking
  19. Creative individuals are:
    • Willing to communicate
    • Unconventional
    • Play in the group
  20. Creativity requires freedom from judgment and enhanced using 3 techniques:
    • 1 Brainstorming
    • 2 Synectics
    • 3 Mind-Mapping
  21. When evaluating information:
    • -Determine what is being said
    • -which statements are facts, interference, or opinions
    • -what terms are ambiguous
    • -how believable the source is
    • -how accurate & valuable the information is
  22. When they check for errors in reasoning, group members should be alert to
    common fallacies
  23. Critical thinking consists of
    asking the right probing questions to prevent groupthink
  24. Groupthink
    tendency of highly cohesive group not to examine critically all aspects of a decision
  25. Groupthink
    • -Overestimate their power
    • -Evaluate information closed-minded & biased way
    • -Experience pressure to conform
  26. Creative thinking in small groups is especially useful:
    A) in the final stages of group work.
    B) before group members have gotten to know each other.
    C) near the start of problem-solving. E) after extensive research on the task that needs to be accomplished.
    D) when group members want to work individually.
    C) near the start of problem-solving.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. Group member characteristics that promote creative thinking include:
    A) concern with following the rules essential to group work.
    B) confidence in own abilities to make the right choice.
    C) willingness to play.
    D) careful analysis of risk.
    E) caution in decision making.
    C) willingness to play.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. Group characteristics that promote creative thinking include:
    A) encouraging all group members to adopt the same working styles.
    B) using procedures that promote orderly and structured discussion.
    C) establishing norms that focus on competition to generate the best ideas.
    D) establishing norms that facilitate freedom of expression.
    E) following norms that have worked for the group in the past.
    D) establishing norms that facilitate freedom of expression.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. In brainstorming:
    A) group members should suspend all critical thinking.
    B) ideas should be evaluated immediately.
    C) the problem should be stated concretely.
    D) usually the best ideas are the first ones stated.
    E) quantity is the goal.
    E) quantity is the goal.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. Which one of the following is TRUE about critical and creative thinking?
    A) Groups are much better at critical thinking than at creative thinking.
    B) Creative thinking involves arguments; critical thinking involves ideas.
    C) It's more important for groups to promote creative thinking than critical thinking.
    D) Critical thinking relies on suspending reality; creative thinking relies on evidence.
    E) Groups trained in creative thinking criticize ideas less.
    E) Groups trained in creative thinking criticize ideas less.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. One characteristic of the critical thinker is:
    A) open-mindedness.
    B) high knowledge about a wide range of topics.
    C) few key resources for finding information.
    D) close-mindedness.
    E) haphazardness in searching for information.
    A) open-mindedness.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. An example of a probing question to evaluate evidence and reasoning is:
    A) Are you sure you know what you're talking about?
    B) What is the source of that evidence?
    C) Wouldn't you agree that we're just wasting our time in this meeting?
    D) How should we present our report to the class?
    E) Why should we keep discussing this topic?
    B) What is the source of that evidence?
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. Attitudes and behaviors that interfere with critical thinking in groups include:
    A) evaluating information and ideas in complex ways.
    B) impulsiveness.
    C) open-minded, flexible behavior.
    D) independence from authority figures.
    E) defending ideas when challenged.
    B) impulsiveness.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. An example of an electronic database is:
    A) the online Cambridge International Dictionary of English.
    B) The New York Times.
    C) LexisNexis.
    D) the online Encyclopedia of Graphic Symbols.
    E) Google.
    C) LexisNexis.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. An example of an open-ended question is:
    A) "How did the university administration decide to begin its new freshman convocation program?"
    B) "Should other universities adopt a freshman convocation program similar to the one in place at our
    C) "Is the university's new freshman convocation program a success?"
    university?"
    D) "When was the first freshman convocation conducted?"
    E) "Has the response to the freshman convocation program been what the university administration
    expected?"
    A) "How did the university administration decide to begin its new freshman convocation program?"
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. An example of a fact is:
    A) California is a progressive state in its approach to environmental issues.
    B) There are many beautiful parts of Ohio.
    C) Louisiana's culture is distinct from other parts of the southern United States.
    D) Winters in North Dakota are harsh. E) In square miles, Rhode Island is the smallest state in the U.S.
    E) In square miles, Rhode Island is the smallest state in the U.S.
  37. In evaluating information in the critical thinking process, group members should ask:
    A) Is the speaker/author a friend of mine?
    B) Is the information consistent with what I think?
    C) What are the incontestable terms?
    D) How will this information support my position?
    E) What are the facts?
    E) What are the facts?
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. "We either go with my proposal or the county transit system will fail." This is one type of fallacy called:
    A) over generalizing.
    B) confusing causal relationships.
    C) incomplete comparisons.
    D) attacking the person instead of the argument.
    E) either-or thinking.
    E) either-or thinking.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. "Nearly 25% of the students at the local university do community service. Students at the university must be civic-minded." This is one type of fallacy called:
    A) attacking the person instead of the argument.
    B) over generalizing.
    C) confusing causal relationships.
    D) either-or thinking.
    E) incomplete comparisons.
    B) over generalizing.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. "The university changed its requirements for graduation. The number of students enrolling in the university increased. The requirement changes led more individuals to attend the university." This is one type of fallacy called:
    A) either-or thinking.
    B) incomplete comparisons.
    C) attacking the person instead of the argument.
    D) confusing causal relationships.
    E) over generalizing.
    D) confusing causal relationships.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  41. Creative thinking involves encouraging group members to use imagination, insight, and fantasy to develop innovative solutions to problems.
    A) True
    B) False
    A) True
  42. In brainwriting, group members call out an idea as soon as it pops into their brain.
    A) True
    B) False
    B) False
  43. Synectics is a creative thinking technique that stimulates metaphoric thinking.
    A) True
    B) False
    A) True
  44. One question group members should ask when evaluating Internet resources is: "Is the source objective?"
    A) True
    B) False
    A) True
  45. Ambiguous terms are clear in their meaning.
    A) True
    B) False
    B) False

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