Sol. BD fluids & electrolytes pt. 3.txt

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coreygloudeman
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Sol. BD fluids & electrolytes pt. 3.txt
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2011-10-31 12:39:34
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Crafton Hills College RESP 131 Sol BD Fluids pt
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Crafton Hills College RESP 131 Sol BD Fluids pt. 3
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  1. Plasma contain more protein than interstitial fluid. What mainly gives it its high osmotic pressure.
    Albumin
  2. Control of total body water occurs through regulation of?
    water intake and water excretion (urine, stool, and insensible)
  3. These are mainly responcible for water excretion.
    Kidneys
  4. two mechanisms allow the kidneys to maintain the volume and concentraiton of body fluid despite variations in salt and water intake.
    filtration and reabsorption of sodium adjust urinary sodium excretion to match changes in dietary intake and water excretion is regulated by secretion of antidiuretic hormone
  5. Water loss from the skin and lungs (vaporization)
    Insensible
  6. Water loss from urine, intestinal, and sweat.
    Sensible
  7. These are such losses that may occur during vomiting, diarrhea, or suctioning from the intestines. Fever, with sweating, is another cause.
    Additive losses
  8. For each degree of temp >99F that persists for 24hrs, an additional _______ of fluid will be required.
    1000mL or 1L
  9. Water is replenished in two major ways:
    Ingestion and metabolism
  10. This is the main form of water replacement. Avg. drinks 1.5-2Lpday H2O and 500-600mL from food
    Ingestion
  11. This water comes from the oxidation of fats, carbs., proteints in the body from the destruction of cells.
    Metabolism
  12. Norm. H2O prduced from metabolism.
    250mLpday
  13. In starvation or post-op. water prod. from metabolism can be as high as
    1-2 Lpday of H2O
  14. Gastro. tract makes 8-10 L of fluid per day, but more than 98% is reclaimed where?
    in the large intestine
  15. vomiting or diarrhea can cause substantial ____
    water loss
  16. ventillation will increase water losses. Artificial airways increased evaporation. This deficit could be ~ 700mL. How can we minimize this loss?
    humidify
  17. Interstitial fluid moves into the lymphatics due to _______. Lymph. lower than interstitial.
    pressure gradients
  18. Colloid osmotic pressure of the intravascular fluid is constant at?
    25mmg
  19. Electrolytes are essential to life. they make chemical and physiological events possible. What are the 7 major ones?
    Na+, Cl-, HCO3-, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, and HPO42-
  20. Norm. Na conc. in serum is?
    136-145 mEq/L
  21. Norm. Na conc. in intracellular?
    4.5 mEq/L
  22. Na reabsorbtion is govern by ______, which is secreted by the adrenal cortex.
    Aldosterone
  23. % Na in extracellular, bone, and cells
    50, 40, 10
  24. Adults ingest and excrete about _____ Na every day
    100mEq
  25. Kids ingest and excrete about ____Na every day
    50mEq
  26. Infants excrete about ____ Na every day.
    20mEq
  27. what % of Na is reabsorbed in proximal tubules and rest in distal tubules of the kidneys?
    80%
  28. Caused by gastrointestinal loss, sweating, fever, diurestics, ascites, congestive heart failure, kidney failure. Sympts. waekness, lassitude, apathy, headache, orthostatic hypotentsion, tachycardia.
    Hypoatremia
  29. caused by net sodium gain, net water loss, increased aldosterone, steoid therapy. Smypt. tremulousness, irritability, ataxia, confusion, seizures, and coma.
    Hyperatremia
  30. Norm. Cl serum levels range.
    98-106 mEq/L
  31. This is the most prominent anion in the body.
    CL-
  32. what ratio of Cl is extracellular, rest is in the cells
    2/3
  33. Cl is inversely proportional to major anion
    HCO3
  34. Cl is regulated by
    Kidneys
  35. Cl is excreted w/ K as
    KCl
  36. caused by gastrointedtinal loss, and diuretics. Sympts. include meta. alkalosis, muscle spasm, and coma
    hypochloremia
  37. caused by dehydration, meta. acidosis, resp. alk.. Sympts. are negligible
    Hyperchloremia
  38. Norm. serum K is
    3.5-5.0 mEq/L
  39. what percent of K is in the cells?
    98%
  40. adults excrete how much K in urine and how much in stool?
    40-75mEq and 10mEq
  41. Controls renal K excretion by inhibiting enzyme responsible for K transport in distal renal tubular cells
    Aldosterone

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