Sol. BD fluids & electrolytes pt. 4.txt

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coreygloudeman
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Sol. BD fluids & electrolytes pt. 4.txt
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2011-10-31 12:40:29
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Crafton Hills College RESP 131 Sol BD Fluids pt
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Crafton Hills College RESP 131 Sol BD Fluids pt. 4
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  1. Meta. acidosis inhibits trans. system as Na and H ions enter cells at the expense of?
    increased K excretion
  2. this stimulates cellular retention of K
    Alkalosis
  3. Caused by diuretics, steroid therapy, renal tubular disease, vomiting, diarrhea, malnutrition, trauma. Symps. muscle weakness, paralysis, ECG abnormalities, supraventricular, arrhythmias, circulatory failure, cardiac arrest.
    Hypokalemia
  4. Hypokalemia treat, involves replacement of K often w/ Cl. Admin of IV K must be cautious because?
    cardiac muscles are sensitive to exracellular K
  5. caused by chronic renal disease, hemorrhage, tissue necrosis, nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs, ACE inhibitors, cyclosporine, K sparing diuretics. Sympts. ECG changes, ventricular arrhythmias, cardiac arrest.
    Hyperkalemia
  6. Hyperkalemia treatment involves the restriction of
    K intake
  7. Norm serum Ca is
    4.5-5.25 mEq/L
  8. Ca is maintained by humral factors such as?
    Vitamin D and parathyroid hormone
  9. is an important mediator of neuromuscular function and cellular enzyme processes. most of it is in the bones
    Ca
  10. Ca is carried in the blood three ways;
    ionized, pretien-bound, and complex
  11. percent Ca2+ is nonionized and bound to plasma albumin
    40
  12. percent Ca2+ in anion complex
    10
  13. percent Ca2+ is ionized
    50
  14. is physiologically active in processes such as enzyme activity, blood clotting, neuromuscular irritability, and bone calcification
    Ca2+
  15. Acidemia does what to Ca2+ in serum?
    increases
  16. Alkalemia does what to Ca2+ in serum
    decreases
  17. caused by hypoparathyroidism, pancreatitis, renal failure, and trauma. Sympts. fatigue, depression, muscle weakness, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, constipation
    Hypocalcemia
  18. causes hyperthyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, metastatic bone cancer, sarcoidosis. Sympts. fatugue, depression, muscle weakness, anorexia, vomiting, and constipation
    Hypercalcemia
  19. If serum Ca2+ rises above 17mg/L (8.3mEq/l) what may occur
    death
  20. norm serum Mg2+
    1.7-2.1 mg/L
  21. fatty acids and excess phosphates impair
    Mg2+ uptake
  22. what percentage of Mg2+ is ionized or bound to other ions?
    80
  23. What percentage of Mg2+ is bound to proteins?
    20
  24. this is important for muscle function, neural conduction, particulary in the cardiac conduction system.
    Mg2+
  25. causes inadequate intake/impaired absorbtion of Mg2+, pancreatitus, alcoholism. Sympts. muscle weakness, irritability, tetany, ECG changes, arrhythmias, delirium, and convulsions.
    Hypomagnesemia
  26. causes dehydration, renal insufficiency, tissue trauma, lupus erythematosus. Sympts. ECG changes, hyperkalemia,cardiac arrest, respiratory muscle paralysis, and diaphragmatic weakness
    Hypermagnesemia
  27. Norm Phosphate serum level
    1.2-2.3 mEq/L
  28. what percentage of the body HPO42- is contained in bone and teeth
    80-90
  29. what percentage of phosphate is combined with proteins, carbs, and lipids in muscle tissue and blood, and the rest is incorporated into complex organic compounds.
    10-17
  30. is the main anion in the cells.
    organic phosphate
  31. plays a primary role in the metabolism of cellular energy, being the source from which ATP is sythesized
    inorganic phosphate
  32. Phosphate is the main urinary buffer for titratable acid excretion in/
    Acid-Base homeostasis
  33. Causes starvation, malabsorption, hyperparathyoidism, hyperthyroidism, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. Sympts. diaphragmatic weakness
    Hypophosphatemia
  34. cases are endocrine disorders, acromegaly, chronic renal insufficiency, acute renal failure, tisse trauma. Sympts are minimal
    Hyperphosphatemia
  35. Normal HCO3 level in arterila blood.
    22-26mEq/L
  36. is the primary means for transporting CO2 from the tissues to the lungs.
    HCO3
  37. In acid base disorders, ____ regulate HCO3- levels to maintain near normal pH
    the kidneys
  38. In normal persons more than 80% of blood HCO3- is reabsorbed in _______ of the kidneys
    the proximal tubules
  39. In respiratory acidosis kidneys.....
    retain or produce HCO3-
  40. In repiratory alkalosis kidneys......
    get rid of HCO3-

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