biolab.txt

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itzlinds
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113415
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biolab.txt
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2011-11-14 12:39:34
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Lab
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A&P Lab # 2
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  1. the muscle that primarily responsibel for producing an action
    prime mover, or agonist
  2. a muslce that aids the action of the primer mover is called the:
    synergist
  3. a muscle that causes movement in opposition of the prime mover is the:
    anatagonist
  4. the place of a muscle attachment to the more stationary bone is called the:
    orgin
  5. the place of a muscle attachment to the bone at it moves is called:
    insertion
  6. List the action and locationof the fontalis:
    • elevate eyebrows
    • location: superfical, anterior
  7. List the action and location of the orbicularis oculi:
    • close the eyelid
    • location: superficial, anterior
  8. List the action of the orbicularis oris:
    action: close and protrude lips
  9. List the action of the buccinator:
    action: compress cheek
  10. List the orgin, insertion, and action of the temporalis:
    • orgin: temporal bone
    • insertion: coronoid process of mandible
    • action: elevate mandible
  11. List the orgin, insertion, and action of the masseter:
    • orgin: zyogomatic arch
    • insertion: angle of the ramus of mandible
    • action: elevate mandible
  12. List the location and action of the medial pterygoid:
    • location: deep, posterior
    • action:elevate mandible
  13. list the location and action of teh lateral pterygoid:
    • location: posterior, deep
    • action: depress mandible
  14. list the action of the digastric:
    action: depress mandible, elevate hyoid
  15. List the name of the hyoids in the suprahyoid group and list the action:
    • Suprahyoid: stylohyoid, mylohyoid, diagstric
    • action: elevate hyoid
  16. list the names of the hyoids in the infrahyoid group and the action:
    • Infrahyoid: omohyoid, sternohyoid, thyrohyoid
    • action: depress hyoid
    • location: deep
  17. List the orgin, insertion and action of the sternocleidomastiod:
    • orgin: sternum and clavicle
    • insertion: mastoid process of the temporal bone
    • action: together-flex the neck, alone, rotate the head to the opposite side
  18. List the action of the erector spine:
    action: together- extend the spine, alone- laterally flex the spine
  19. list the action of the external interocostals:
    action: elevate and protract the ribs
  20. List the action of the internal intercostals:
    action: depresss and retract the ribs
  21. list the action of the diaphram:
    action: prime mover of the inspiration
  22. list the action of the internal abdominal obliques:
    action: compress the abdominal viscera
  23. list the action of the internal abdominal obliques:
    action: compress the abdominal viscera
  24. list the action of the transverse abdominals:
    action: compress the abdominal viscera
  25. list the action of the rectus abdominis:
    action: flex trunk, compress abdominal viscera
  26. list the orgin, insertion, and action of the trapezius:
    • orgin: occipital bone and spines of C7- T3 vertebrae
    • insertion: clavicle; spine and acromion process of the scapula
    • action: elevate, retract, and laterally rotate the scapula
  27. list the orgin , insertion , and action of the rhomboideus major:
    • orgin: spines to T2-T5 vertebrae
    • insertion: medial scapula
    • action: retract scapula
  28. list the action and the location of the rhomboideus minor:
    • action: retract scapula
    • location: deep
  29. list the action and the location of the levator scapulae:
    • action: elevate the scpaula
    • location: deep
  30. list the action and the location of the serratus anterior:
    • action: protract and laterally rotate the scapula
    • location: deep
  31. List the action and location of the pectoralis minor:
    • action: protract and laterally rotate scapula
    • location: deep
  32. the minimum voltage necessary to generate an action potential in the muscle fiber and produce a contraction is called:
    threshold
  33. A quick cycle of contraction and relaxation is called:
    a muscle twitch
  34. The process of bringing more motor units into play is called:
    motor unit recruitment
  35. Each new twitch "rides piggy back" on the previous one and generates higher tension is called ______ because it results from two stimulus arriving close together:
    temporal summation
  36. a contraction without change in length is called:
    isometric
  37. Name the fxn of the supraspinatus:
    ABD the humerus
  38. List the muscles that latterally rotate the humerus:
    • infraspinatus
    • teres minor
  39. List the muscles that medially rotate the humerus:
    subscapularis
  40. List the origin, insertion and action of the deltoid:
    • origin: clavicle; spine and acromino process of scapula
    • insertion: deltoid tuberosity of the humerus
    • action: ABD, flex, extend and rotate the humerus
  41. List the muscles that extend the humerus:
    • deltoid
    • teres major
    • latissimus dorsi
  42. List the muscles that ADD the humerus:
    • latissimus dorsi
    • pectoralis major
    • coracobrachialis
  43. List the muscles that flex the humerus:
    • pectoralis major
    • corachobrachilalis
  44. List the origin, instertion, and the action of the coracobrachialis:
    • origin: coracoid process of the scapula
    • insertion: medial shaft of the humerus
    • action: ADD and flex the humerus
  45. List the muslces that make up the rotator cuff:
    • supraspinatus
    • infraspinatus
    • teres minor
    • supscapularis
  46. List the origin, insertion, and action of the biceps brachii:
    • origin: coracoid process of the scapula
    • instertion: radial tuberosity
    • action: flex and supinate the forearm
  47. list the muscles that flex the forearm:
    • biceps brachii
    • brachialis
    • brachioradialis
  48. list the muscles that extend the forearm:
    tricpes brachii
  49. List the origin, instertion, and action of the triceps brachii:
    • origin: posterior humerus
    • instertion: olecranon process of the ulna
    • action: extend the forearm
  50. List the muslces that flex the wrist:
    • flexor capir radialis
    • plamaris longus
    • flexor carpi ulnaris
    • flexor digitorum superficialis
  51. List the muscles that extend the wrist:
    • extensor carpi radiallis longus
    • extensor carpi radialis brevis
    • extensor digitorium
    • extensor digiti minimi
    • extensor carpi ulnaris
  52. List the muscles that ABD the thigh and leg:
    • tensor fasciae latea
    • gluteus maximus
    • gluetus medius
    • gluteus minimus
    • piriformis
    • gemellus superior
    • gemellus inferior
    • sartorius
  53. list the muscles that laterally rotate the thigh:
    • obturator internus
    • quadratus femoris
  54. List the muscles that flex the thigh:
    iliopsoas
  55. List the muscles that ADD the thigh:
    • pectineus
    • adductor longus
    • adductor magnus
    • gracilis
  56. List the origin, insertion, and action of the gluteus maximus:
    • origin: ilium, sacrum, and coccyx
    • insertion: IT band and proximal femur
    • action: ABD and extend thigh
  57. List the origin, insertion, and action of the gluteus medius:
    • origin: ilium
    • insertion: greater trochanter of femur
    • action: ABD and medially rotate thigh
  58. Name and list the group of muscles that extend the knee:
    • Name: quadriceps
    • rectus femoris
    • vastus lateralis
    • vastus medialis
    • vastus intermedius
  59. List the origin, instertion and action of the vastus lateralis:
    • origin: greater trochanter of the femur
    • insertion: tibial tuberosity
    • action: extend knee
  60. List the origin, insertion, and action of the vastus medialis:
    • origin: medial femur
    • insertion: tibial tuberosity
    • action: extend knee
  61. Name and list the muscles that flex the knee and extend the thigh:
    • Name: hamstrings
    • biceps femoris
    • semitendinosus
    • semimembranosus
  62. List the origin, insertion, and action of the semitendinosus:
    • origin: ischial tuberosity
    • insertion: medial tibia
    • action: flex knee and extend thigh
  63. List the origin, insertion, and action of the semimembranosus:
    • origin: ischial tuberosity
    • insertion: medila condyle of tibia
    • action: flex knee and extend thigh
  64. List the muscles that DF the footL
    • tibal anterior
    • extensor digitorum longus
  65. List the muscles that PF the foot:
    • gastrocnemius
    • soleus
    • flexor digitorum longus
    • fibularis longus
    • fibularis brevis
  66. List the origin, insertion, and action of the gastrocnemius:
    • origin: femoral condyles
    • instertion: calcaneus
    • action: PF the food and flex the knee
  67. List the origin, insertion, and action of the soleus:
    • origin: fibular head and posterior tibia
    • insertion: calcaneus
    • action: PF the foot
  68. outline the anatomical and physiological divisions of the central nervous system:
    • brain
    • spinal cord
  69. outline the anatomical and physiological divisions of the peripheral nervous system:
    • Sensory (afferent) division
    • a. somatic sensory division
    • b. viceral sensory division

    • Motor (efferant) division
    • a. somatic motor divison
    • b. autonomic nervous system
    • 1. sympathetic
    • 2. parasympathetic
  70. _______ neurons have only a single process leading away from the soma and include _______ neurons going to the spinal cord.
    • unipolar
    • sensory
  71. _______ neurons hvae two process arising from the soma ( one axon and one dendrite) and inlcude ___________ neruons.
    • bipolar
    • special senses (olfactory, retinal cells, and inner ear cells)
  72. ______ neurons have many processes extending from the soma ( one axon and multiple dendrites), it is the most common neuron, and includes most neurons from the ______ and _____.
    • multipolar
    • brain and spinal cord
  73. thick folds in the brain are called:
    gyri
  74. gyri are separated by shallow grooves called:
    sulci
  75. a very deep median groove, ____________ separates the right and left hemispheres.
    longitudinal fissure
  76. identify that following anatomical landmarks of the brain:

    gyri
    sulci
    central sulcus
    lateral sulcus
    longitudinal fissure
    transverse fissue
  77. indentify the meninges of th brain:

    dura mater
    arachnoid mater
    pia mater
  78. identify the following structures of the forebrain:

    cerebrum
    cerebral cortex
    fornix
    corpus callosum
    frontal lobe
    precentral gyris(primary motor cortex)
    parietal lobe
    postcentral gyris ( primary somatosensory cortex)
    temporal lobe
    occipital lobe
  79. identify the following structures of the dienchphalon:

    thalamus
    hypothalamus
    mammillary body
    infundibulum
    pineal gland
    pituitary gland
  80. Identify the structures of the brainstem:

    midbrain
    pons
    medulla oblongata
    hindbrain
  81. identify the structures of the midbrain:

    corpora quadrigemina
    superior colliculus
    inferior colliculus
    cerebral peduncles
  82. identifiy the structures of the cerebellum:

    arbor vitae
  83. Identify the structures of the hindbrain:

    pons
    madulla oblongata
    cerebellum
  84. identify the ventricles of the brain and pathways for the CSF:

    lateral ventricles ( right and left)
    interventricular foramina
    3rd ventricle
    cerebral aquaduct
    4th ventricle
    subarachnoid space
    central canal
  85. identify the number, what it innervates, and what nerve type of the olfactory nerve:
    • number: i
    • innervates: olfactory mucosa in the nasal cavity
    • type: sensory
  86. identify the number, what it innervates, and what nerve type of the optic nerve:
    • number: ii
    • innervates: retina
    • type: sensory
  87. identify the number, what it innervates, and what nerve type of the oculomotor nerve:
    • number: iii
    • innervates: superior, inferior, and median rectus and inferior oblique muscles of the eye
    • type: motor
  88. identify the number, what it innervates, and what nerve type of the trochlear nerve:
    • number: iv
    • innervates: superior oblique eye muscle
    • type: motor
  89. identify the number, what it innervates, and what nerve type of the trigeminal:
    • number: v
    • innervates: face, nasal mucosa, and facial muscles
    • type: both
  90. identify the number, what it innervates, and what nerve type of the abducens nerver:
    • number: vi
    • innervates: lateral oblique eye muscle
    • type: motor
  91. identify the number, what it innervates, and what nerve type of the facial nerve:
    • number: vii
    • innervates: facial muscles and glands
    • type: both
  92. identify the number, what it innervates, and what nerve type of the vestibulocochlear nerve:
    • number: viii
    • innervates: inner ear
    • type: sensory
  93. identify the number, what it innervates, and what nerve type of the glossopharyngeal nerve:
    • number: ix
    • innervates: tongue, glands, outer ear
    • type: both
  94. identify the number, what it innervates, and what nerve type of the vagus:
    • number: x
    • innervates: tongue, pharynx, larynx, and visceral organs
    • type: both
  95. identify the number, what it innervates, and what nerve type of the accessory:
    • number: xi
    • innervates: head and neck
    • type: motor
  96. identify the number, what it innervates, and what nerve type of the hypoglossal nerve:
    • number: xii
    • innervates: tongue
    • type: motor
  97. List the major nerve that arise from the cervical plexus, and name the cord level from which it arises:
    • major nerve: phrenic nerve
    • cord level: (c1 - c5)
  98. List the major nerve that arise from the brachial plexus, and name the cord level from which it arises
    • major nerves: musculocutaneous nerve
    • axiallary nerve
    • raidal nerve
    • median nerve
    • ulnar nerve
    • cord level: (c5-t1)
  99. List the major nerve that arise from the lumbar plexus, and name the cord level from which it arises
    • major nerve: femoral nerve
    • cord level: L1-L4
  100. List the major nerve that arise from the sacral plexus, and name the cord level from which it arises
    • major nerve: sciatic nerve (common fibular nerve + tibial nerve)
    • cord level: L4-s4
  101. indentify the following structures related to the spinal cord:

    gray matter
    white matter
    central canal
    dorsal (posterior) root
    dorsal (posterior) root ganglia
    ventral (anterior) root
    spinal nerve
    dorsal (posterior) ramus
    ventral (anterior) ramus
  102. The central nervous system (CNS) consists of the:

    brain and cranial nerves
    brain, spinal cord, and autonomic nerves
    spinal cord and spinal nerves
    brain and spinal cord
    brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, and spinal nerves
    brain and spinal cord
  103. Put the meninges of the brain and spinal cord in order from superficial to deep:
    • dura mater
    • arachnoid mater
    • pia mater
  104. To get from the third ventricle to the fourth ventricle, CSF must flow through the:



    interventricular foramina
    choroid plexus
    central canal
    cerebral aqueduct
    subarachnoid space
    cerebral aqueduct
  105. Which cranial nerve (number and name) innervates the inner ear?

    CN IX: glossopharyngeal
    CN XI: accessory
    CN VII: facial
    CN X: vagus
    CN VIII: vestibulocochlear
    VIII: vestibulocochlear
  106. Which of the following cranial nerves relays only sensory information?


    vagus nerve
    trigeminal nerve
    hypoglossal nerve
    trochlear nerve
    olfactory nerve
    olfactory nerve
  107. The musculocutaneous nerve is part of which spinal nerve plexus?


    brachial
    cervical
    sacral
    lumbar
    coccygeal
    brachial

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