107

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robbinst7
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107
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2011-11-01 10:12:48
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107: AVIATION FUNDAMENTALS
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  1. Inertia
    The willingness of an object to remain at rest or to continue in motion unless acted upon by an outside force.
  2. Acceleration
    The rate of change of the speed and/or velocity of matter with time. If our ship, which is presently moving at 10 knots, is moving at 18 knots one hour from now and 21 knots 2 hours from now, it is said to be accelerating at a rate of 3 knots per hour.
  3. Speed
    The rate of movement or motion in a given amount of time. Speed is the term used when only the rate of movement is meant. If the rate of movement of a ship is 14 knots, we say its speed is 14 knots per hour.
  4. Velocity
    The combination of speed and direction of an object. For example if you are in your car going 55mph you have speed. If you are going north at 55mph you have velocity.
  5. Newton't First Law
    According to Newton's first law of motion (inertia), an object at rest will remain at rest, or an object in motion will continue in motion at the same speed and in the same direction, until acted upon by an outside force. For example, once an airplane is moving, another force may act on it to bring it to a stop, otherwise it will continue in its motion.
  6. Newton's Second Law
    The second law of motion (force) states that if an object moving with uniform speed is acted upon by an external force, the change of motion, or acceleration, will be directly proportional to the amount of force and inversely proportional to teh mass of the object being moved. Simply stated, an object being pushed by 10 pounds of force will travel faster than it would if it were pushed by 5 pounds of force.
  7. Newton's Third Law
    The third law of motion (action and reaction) states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. This law is demonstrated with a balloon. if you inflate a balloon and release it without securing the neck, as the air is expelled the balloon will move in the opposite direction of the air rushing out of it.
  8. Define Bernoulli's principle.
    The principle states that when a fluid flowing through a tube reaches a constriction or narrowing of the tube, the speed of the fluid passing through the constriction is increased and its pressure decreased. The general lift of an airfoil is dependent upon the airfoil's being able to create circulation in the airstream and develop the lifting pressure over the airfoil surface. As the relative wind strikes the leading edge of the airfoil, the flow of air is split. Part is deflected upward and aft, and the rest is deflected down and aft. Since the upper surface of the wing has camber or a curve on it, the flow over its surface is disrupted, and this causes a wavelike effect to the wing. The lower surface is relatively flat. Lift is accomplished by the difference in the airflow across the airfoil.
  9. Wind warning-Small craft
    Harbor and inland waters warning for winds, 33 knots or less, of concern to small craft. The lower threshold for issuing such warnings is set by local authority.
  10. Wind warning-Gale
    Warning for harbor, inland waters, and ocean areas for winds of 34 to 47 knots.
  11. Wind warning - Storm
    Warning for harbor, inland waters, and ocean areas for winds of 48 knots or greater.
  12. Tropical depression
    Warning for land, harbor, inland waters, and ocean areas for winds of 33 knots or less.
  13. Tropical storm
    Warning for land, harbor, inland waters, and ocean areas for winds of 34 to 63 knots.
  14. Hurricane/typhoon
    Warning for land, harbor, inland waters, and ocean areas for winds of 64 knots or greater.
  15. Thunderstorm warning
    Thunderstorms are within 3 miles of the airfield, or in the immediate area.
  16. Severe thunderstorm warning
    Thunderstorms with wind gusts to 50 knots or greater and/or hail of 3/4 inch in diameter or greater is forecast to impact the warning area.
  17. Tornado warning
    Tornadoes have been sited or detected by RADAR in or adjacent to the warning area, or have a strong potential to develop in the warning area.
  18. Lift
    The force that acts, in an upward direction, to support the aircraft in the air. It counteracts the effects of weight. Lift must be greater than or equal to weight if flight is to be sustained.
  19. Weight
    The force of gravity acting downward on the aircraft and everything on the aircraft.
  20. Drag
    The force which tends to hold an aircraft back. Drag is caused by the disruption of the air about the wings, fuselage or body, and all protruding objects on the aircraft. Drag resists motion.
  21. Thrust
    The force developed by the aircraft's engine, and it acts in the forward direction. Thrust must be greater than or equal to the effects of drag in order for flight to begin or be sustained.
  22. Longitudinal axis
    An imaginary reference line running down the center of the aircraft between the nose and tail. The axis about which roll occurs.
  23. Lateral axis
    An imaginary reference line running parallel to the wings and about which pitch occurs.
  24. Vertical axis
    An imaginary reference line running from the top to the bottom of the aircraft. The movement associated with this axis is yaw.
  25. State the three primary movements of aircraft about the axis.
    • a. Pitch - The movement of the aircraft about its lateral axis. The up and down motion of the nose of the aircraft.
    • b. Yaw - The movement of the aircraft about its vertical axis. The drift, or right or left movement of the nose of the aircraft.
    • c. Roll - The movement of the aircraft about its longitudinal axis. The movement of the wing tips; one up and the other down.
  26. Fixed wing aircraft primary flight controls
    The ailerons provide control about the longitudinal axis, the elevators provide control about the lateral axis, and the rudder provides control about the vertical axis.
  27. Rotary wing aircraft primary flight controls
    The collective stick controls the pitch of the rotor blades which translates to "up and down". The cyclic stick tilts the plane of the rotor blades forward, aft or sideways, giving the helicopter its directional motion. Lateral control is provided using the foot pedals to control the blades on the tail rotor.
  28. Flap
    Gives the aircraft extra lift. The purpose is to reduce the landing speed, thereby shortening the length of the landing rollout. They also facilitate landing in small or obstructed areas by permitting the gliding angle to be increased without greatly increasing the approach. The use of flaps during takeoff serves to reduce the length of the takeoff run. Some flaps are hinged to the lower trailing edges of the wings inboard of the ailerons. Leading edge flaps are in use on the Navy F-4, Phantom II.
  29. Spoiler
    Used to decrease wing lift. However, the specific design, function, and use vary with different aircraft. On some aircraft, the spoilers are long narrow surfaces, hinged at their leading edge to the upper surfaces of the wings. In the retracted position, they are flush with the wing skin. In the raised position, they greatly reduce wing lift by destroying the smooth flow of air over the wing surfaces.
  30. Speed brakes
    Hinged or moveable control surfaces used for reducing the speed of aircraft. On some aircraft, they are hinged to the sides or bottom of the fuselage; on others they are attached to the wings. They keep the speed from building too high in dives. They are also used to slow the speed of the aircraft prior to landing.
  31. Slats
    Slats are movable control surfaces attached to the leading edge of the wing. When the slat is retracted, it forms the leading edge of the wing. When open, or extended forward, a slot is created between the slat and the wing leading edge. High-energy air is introduced into the boundary layer over the top of the wing. At low airspeeds, this improves the lateral control handling characteristics, allowing the aircraft to be controlled at airspeeds below the normal landing speed. This is known as boundary layer control. Boundary layer control is intended primarily for use during operations from carriers; that is, for catapult takeoffs and arrested landings.
  32. Horizontal stabilizer
    Provides stability of the aircraft about its lateral axis. This is longitudinal stability. It serves as the base to which the elevators are attached. On some high-performance aircraft, the entire vertical and/or horizontal stabilizer is a movable airfoil. Without the movable airfoil, the flight control surfaces would lose their effectiveness at extrememly high speeds.
  33. Vertical stabilizer
    Maintains the stability of the aircraft about its vertical axis. This is known as directional stability. The vertical stabilizer usually serves as teh base to which the rudder is attached.
  34. Tail rotor
    Mounted vertically on the outer portion of the helicopter's tail section. The tail rotor counteracts the torque action of the main rotor by producing thrust in the opposite direction. The tail rotor also controls the yawing action of the helicopter.
  35. Explain the term angle of attack.
    The angle at which a body, such as an airfoil or fuselage, meets a flow of air. Defined as the angle between the chord line of the wing (an imaginary straight line from the leading edge to the trailing edge of the wing) and the relative wind. The relative wind is the direction of the airstream in relationship to the wing. For example, straight and level flight has the relative wind directly in front of it and has zero angle of attack since the relative wind is directly striking the leading edge of the wing. An aircraft flying parallel to the ground which has the nose trimmed significantly up, now has the leading edge of the wing (chord line) pointed at an upward angle; however, the relative wind is striking the bottom of the wing. An analogy is to hold your hand out of the car window with your palm facing the ground (zero angle of attack), and then to rotate your hand slightly in either direction. Angle of attack is measured in "units" as opposed to degrees.an aircraft in
  36. Explain the term autorotation
    A method of allowing a helicopter to land safely from altitude without using engine power by making use of the reversed airflow up through the rotor system to reduce the rate of descent. Accomplished by lowering collective pitch lever to maintain rotor rpm while helicopter is decreasing in altitude, then increasing collective pitch at a predetermined altitude to convert inertial energy into lift to reduce the rate of descent and cushion the landing.
  37. State the components of a basic hydraulic system.
    a. A reservoir to hold a supply of hydraulic fluid. b. A pump to provide a flow of fluid. c. Tubing to transmit the fluid. d. A selector valve to direct the flow of fluid. e. An actuating unit to convert the fluid pressure into useful work.
  38. Describe and explain the purpose of the main components of landing gear.
    a. Shock Strut Assembly - Absorbs the shock that otherwise would be sustained by the airframe. b. Tires - Allows the aircraft to roll easily and provides traction during takeoff and landing. c. Wheel brake asembly - Used to slow and stop the aircraft. Also used to prevent the aircraft from rolling while parked. d. Retracting and extending mechanism - All the necessary hardware to electrically or hydraulically extend and retract the landing gear. e. Side struts and supports - Provides lateral strength/support for the landing gear.
  39. State the safety precautions used when servicing aircraft tires on aircraft.
    Modern aircraft wheels and tires are among the most highly stressed parts of the aircraft. High tire pressure, cyclic loads, corrosion and physical damage contribute to failure of aircraft wheels. The wheel fragments can be propelled several hundred feet. Always approach the tires from fore and aft. When inflating, stand off to the side. Deflate when removing from the aircraft.
  40. State the 5 basic sections of a jet engine.
    a. The intake which is an opening in the front of the aircraft engine that allows outside or ambient air to enter the engine. b. The compressor which is made of a series of rotating blades and a row of stationary stator vanes. The compressor provides high-pressure air to the combustion chamber (or chambers). c. The combustion chamber where fuel enters and combines with the compressed air. d. The turbine section which drives the compressor and accessories by extracting some of the energy and pressure from the combustion gases. e. The exhaust cone which is attached to the rear of the engine assembly and eliminates turbulence in the emerging jet, thereby giving maximum velocity.
  41. Turbojet
    F-18, Projects a column of air to the rear at an extremely high velocity. The resulting effect is to propel the aircraft in the opposite or forward direction.
  42. Turboshaft
    SH-60, Delivers power through a shaft to drive something other than a propeller. The power take off may be coupled directly to the engine, but in most cases it is driven by it's own free turbine located in the exhaust stream that operates independently on the engine. They have a high power-to-weight ratio and are currently used in helicopters.
  43. Turboprop
    C-2, Propulsion is accomplished by the conversion of the majority of the gas-energy into mechanical power to drive a propeller. This is done by the addition of more turbine stages. Only a small amount of jet thrust is obtained on a turbo prop engine.
  44. Turbofan
    AV-8B, Basically the same as a turbo prop except that the propeller is replaced by a duct-enclosed axial-flow fan. The fan can be part of the first stage compressor or mounted as a separate set of fan blades driven by an independent turbine depending on the fan design, it will produce somewhere around 50 percent of the engine's total thrust.
  45. State the purpose of an afterburner.
    Used during takeoff and combat maneuvering to boost the normal thrust rating of a gas turbine engine through additional burning of the remaining unused air in the exhaust section.
  46. JP4-NATO Code F-40
    Has a flame spread rate of 700-800 feet per minute and a low flashpoint of -10 degrees F or -23 degrees C. Never used on ships. Use of JP4 will normally cause an engine to operate with a lower exhaust gas temperature (EGT), slower acceleration, and lower engine RPM.
  47. JP5-NATO Code F-44
    Has a flame spread rate of 100 feet per minute, and a flashpoint of 140 degrees F or 60 degrees C. JP-5 is the only approved fuel for use aboard naval vessels. The lowest flashpoint considered safe for use aboard naval vessels is 140 degrees F. This is the Navy's primary jet fuel.
  48. JP8-NATO Code F-34
    Has a flame spread rate of 100 feet per minute, and a flashpoint of 100 degrees F or 40 degrees C.
  49. Describe the 3 hazards associated with jet fuel.
    Explosion from fuel fumes, vapor inhalation, and toxic contact with skin, eyes, or swallowing can cause illness or death.
  50. Describe the symptoms of fuel vapor inhalation.
    The symptoms include nausea, dizziness, and headaches. Fuel vapor inhalation can cause death.
  51. Explain the purpose of the Auxiliary Power Unit (APU).
    These power units furnish electrical power when engine-driven generators are not operating or when external power is not available. Most units use a gas turbine to drive the generator. The gas turbine provides compressed air for air conditioning and pneumatic engine starting. This makes the aircraft independent of the need for ground power units to carry out its mission.
  52. Identify the reasons for and methods of Non-Destructive Inspection (NDI)
    It is essential that defects be found and corrected before they reach catastrophic proportion. NDI can provide 100 percent sampling with no affect to the use of the part or system being inspected. Methods used may include visual, optical, liquid penetrant, magnetic particle, eddy current, ultrasonic, radiographic, etc. NDI is the practice of evaluating a part or sample of material without impairing its future usefulness.
  53. Discuss icing and its effects on the performance of naval aircraft.
    Ice on the airframe decreases lift and increases drag, weight, and stalling speed. The accumulation of ice in exterior movable surfaces affects the control of the aircraft. If ice begins to form on the blades of a propeller, the propeller's efficiency is decreased or further power is demanded of the engine to maintain flight. Most aircraft have sufficient reserve power to fly with a heavy load of ice, but airframe icing is a serious problem because it results in increased fuel consumption and decreased range. The possibility always exists that engine system icing may result in loss of power. Icing can cause: loss of engine power, aerodynamic efficiency, loss of proper operation of control surfaces, brakes and landing gear, loss of outside vision, false instrument indications, and loss of radio.
  54. Pitot-static
    The pitot-static system in an aircraft includes some of the instruments that operate on the principle of the barometer. It consists of a pitot-static tube and 3 indicators, all connected with tubing that carries air. The three indicators are the altimeter, airspeed indicator, and the rate-of-climb indicator. Each operates on air taken from outside the aircraft during flight. The tube or line from the pitot tube to the airspeed indicator applies the pressure of the outside air to the indicator. The indicator is calibrated so various air pressures cause different readings. The pitot tube is mounted on the outside of the aircraft at a point where air is least likely to be turbulent. It points in a forward direction parallel to the aircraft's line of flight. Static means stationary or not changing. The static port introduces outside air, at its normal outside atmospheric pressure, as though the aircraft were standing still in the air. The static line applies this outside air to the airspeed indicator, altimeter, and rate-of-climb indicator.
  55. Airspeed indicator
    The airspeed indicator displays the speed of the aircraft in relation to the air in which it is flying. In some instances, the speed of the aircraft is shown in Mach numbers. The Mach number gives the speed compared to the speed of sound in the surrounding medium (local speed). For example, if an aircraft is flying at a speed equal to one-half the local speed of sound, it is flying at Mach 0.5. If it moves at twice the speed of sound, its speed is Mach 2.
  56. Altimeters
    The altimeter shows the height of the aircraft above sea level. The face of the instrument is calibrated so the counter or pointer displays the correct altitude of the aircraft.
  57. Rate-of-climb
    The rate-of-climb indicator shows the rate at which an aircraft is climbing or descending.
  58. Attitude indicator
    . The instrument shows the pilot the relative position of the aircraft compared to the earth's horizon.
  59. Bombs
    Any weapon other than a torpedo, mine, rocket or missile, dropped from an aircraft. Bombs are free-falling explosive weapons and may be unguided or "smart" or guided. Designed for release over enemy targets to reduce and neutralize the enemy's war potential by destructive explosion, fire, nuclear reaction, etc.
  60. Rockets
    A weapon contraining an explosive section and a propulsion section. A rocket is unable to change its direction of movement once fired. It can be launched from an aircraft without the need of heavy or complex gun platforms and without violent recoil. Since rockets are usually launched at close range, it's accuracy as a propelled projectile is higher than that of a free-falling bomb dropped, from high altitude.
  61. Missiles
    A vehicle containing an explosive section, propulsion section, and guidance section. A missile is able to change direction or movement after being fired. Missiles are classified according to their range, speed, launch environment, mission and vehicle type.
  62. Mines
    An underwater explosive put into position by surface ships, submarines, or aircraft. A mine explodes only when a target comes near or in contact with it. Their primary objective is to effectively defend or control vital straits, port approaches, convoy anchorages and seaward coastal barriers.
  63. Torpedoes
    Self-propelled underwater missiles used against surface and underwater targets. Torpedoes are the primary weapon employed in antisubmarine warfare. They are designed to search, detect, attack and destroy submarines and surface ships.
  64. Circuit breaker
    A protective device that opens a circuit when the current exceeds a predetermined value. Circuit breakers can be reset.
  65. Fuse
    A protective device inserted in-line with a circuit. It contains a metal that will melt or break when current is increased beyond a specified value, thus disconnecting the circuit from its power source to prevent damage.
  66. Ohm's Law
    E=IR
  67. Voltage
    The "driving force" behind current. Voltage, as applied to Ohm's Law, can be stated to be the base value in determining unknown circuit values. Designated by the letter (E).
  68. Current
    The flow of electrons. Ohm's Law states that current is directly proportional to the applied voltage and inversely proportional to the circuit resistance. Designated by the letter (I).
  69. Resistance
    The opposing force to the flow of electrons. As stated in Ohm's Law, current is inversely proportional to resistance. This means, as the resistance in a circuit increases, the current decreases proportionally. Designated by the letter (R).

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