Nervous System - Brain

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Nervous System - Brain
2011-10-31 15:47:18
nerves brain anatomy

basic nervous system and regions of the human brain
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  1. astrocyte
    • star shaped
    • helps with blood brain barrier
    • regulates tissue fluid composition
    • structurally replaces damaged neurons
    • assists in neuron development
  2. ependymal cell
    • simple cuboidal cells
    • has many branches
    • lines brain ventricles and spinal cavity
    • forms choroid plexus (which produces CSF)
  3. microglia
    • tiny, skinny branches
    • wandering cells
    • phagocytes that remove cellular debris/dead/damaged tissue
  4. oligodendrocyte
    • large bulbous cells
    • slender extensions
    • processes reach multiple axons
    • wraps axon with a protective covering called myelin (makes myelin in CNS)
  5. satellite cell
    • flattened cells around cell bodies
    • separate cell bodies from interstitial fluid
    • regulates exchange of nutrients and waste product neurons and their environments
  6. neurolemmocyte (Schwann) cell
    make myelin to cover axons in PNS
  7. synapse
    point of junction between two neurons (or other cells) and consists of three elements: pre-synaptic neuron, post-synaptic neuron, and synaptic cleft
  8. pre-synaptic neuron
    usually the axon terminal containing neurotransmitter molecules
  9. post-synaptic neuron
    membranous region of another neuron or target cell that has receptors that bind the neurotransmitter released from the axon terminal
  10. synaptic cleft
    very tiny space between the pre-synaptic and post-synaptic elements where the neurotransmitter is released into during the process of neurotransmission
  11. forebrain (prosencephalon)
    made up of telencephalon (cerebral cortex) and diencephalon (thalamus, hypothalamus, and pituitary gland)
  12. cerebral cortex
    • outer gray matter
    • highly convoluted (folded)
    • has no myelin
  13. gyrus
    fold of tissue (like mountains)
  14. sulcus
    gap between adjacent gyri (like valleys)
  15. white matter
    • deep to gray matter
    • has myelin
  16. longitudinal fissure
    separates right and left hemispheres
  17. lateral sulcus
    separates frontal from temporal lobes
  18. central sulcus
    separates frontal from parietal lobes
  19. frontal lobe of cerebrum
    • anterior regions involved with cognition, personality, mood, and affect
    • pre-central gyrus is the primary voluntary motor area
  20. parietal lobes of cerebrum
    post-central gyrus is the primary somatosensory area
  21. temporal lobes of cerebrum
    • memory function
    • conscious perception of auditory and olfactory stimuli
  22. occipital lobe
    visual cortex
  23. basal ganglia (cerebral nuclei)
    • group of CNS nuclei located deep to cerebral cortex
    • function to subconsciously regulate contractile activity of skeletal muscles
  24. basal ganglia main nuclei
    • caudate nucleus
    • putamen
    • globus pallidus
  25. diseases from dysfunction of basal ganglia
    • Parkinson's disease (dopamine depletion causes frozen limbs; hypokinesia = slowness of movement)
    • Huntington's disease (degeneration of caudate nucleus causes excessive motion; hyperkinesia = excess movement)
  26. diencephalon
    contains thalamus (anterior/ventral groups), hypothalamus, and pituitary gland
  27. thalamus (anterior group)
    provide conscious awareness of emotional states
  28. thalamus (ventral group)
    serve as a "relay center" for sensory and motor signals traveling to specific areas of cerebral cortex
  29. hypothalamus
    • control of autonomic functions (heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rhythm, digestive functions)
    • endocrine related functions include producing hormones
    • produce emotional and behavioral drives (thirst, feeding, sex)
    • facilitates adjustments in body temperature
  30. midbrain (mesencephalon)
    made up of tectum and tegmentum
  31. tectum (roof or posterior region of the midbrain)
    contains two pairs of sensory nuclei (superior and inferior colliculi) forming a structure called the corpora quadrigemina (4 bumps)
  32. superior colliculus
    responsible for reflexes caused by visual stimuli
  33. inferior colliculus
    responsible for reflexes caused by auditory stimuli
  34. tegmentum (anterior/front region of the midbrain)
    has red nucleus, substantial nigra, and cerebral peduncles
  35. substantia nigra
    • black substance
    • nucleus located ventral to the tegmentum of the midbrain that is responsible for producing the majority of dopamine in CNS
    • degeneration of dopamine neurons causes Parkinson's disease
  36. hindbrain
    has metencephalon (cerebellum and pons) and myelecephalon (medulla oblongata)
  37. cerebellum
    • coordinates rapid, automatic adjustments that maintain balance and equilibrium fine-tuning of skilled voluntary motor activity to produce smooth, accurate movements
    • diseases of cerebellum lead to ataxia (a disturbance in balance)
  38. pons
    • contains sensory and motor "brainstem" nuclei
    • contains nuclei involved with the control of respiratory rhythm (pneumotaxic and apneustic center)
    • rounded structure; above medulla oblongata
  39. medulla oblongata
    • similar to pons - sensory and motor nuclei located here
    • nuclei involved in control of respiratory rate also, autonomic centers for regulation of visceral functions (cardiovascular, respiratory and digestive system activities)