HA 261 Week 9

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a_m_pericich
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113457
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HA 261 Week 9
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2011-10-31 21:56:30
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modern art history
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American Art between the Wars
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    • Manuel Alvarez Bravo
    • Laughing Mannequins
    • 1932
    • blending of surrealism and Mexican identity
    • framing of photo captures visual poetry of city
    • illusion of real women - upsetting expectations
    • - many of the faces are the same, no arms, hanging
    • tie to the uncanny (Freud) - look like people but they aren't - disorienting
    • Claude Cahun
    • Self-Portrait
    • 1928
    • emphasizes issues of gender and self-representation
    • challenges societal expectatiosn of gender roles - male and female elements present
    • challenge photography as document - if photograph is "real," we should be able to tell she is female
    • Five Cents a Spot
    • Jacob Riis
    • 1889
    • social reform + photography
    • criticism and commentary - illustrates experience of poorest urban dwellers in US
    • images are not just documentary - they also have composition, design, etc
    • invisible, underground city - multiple layers, back alleys; density of humanity overwhelms viewer
    • poor = victims rather than makers of own fate; goes against common knowledge
    • thought was that if upper/middle class was shown what was up, they would fix the city
    • connects space to frame, enclose/trap figures
    • uses flash powder - impt because slums were poorly lit day and night
    • The Steerage
    • Alfred Stieglitz
    • 1907
    • precisionism
    • "straight photography" - no manipulation ebcause this looses the natural tone/art of the medium; little to no airbrushing/bluring, etc
    • passengers on way back to Europe after being rejected from Ellis Island
    • Stieglitz doesn't care; he just saw a picture of shapes and had a feeling about life
    • shapes, forms, colors (blacks, whites, shadows)
    • no interest in human condition, emotion
    • clear distinction between amateur and artist photographer
    • Robert Henri,
    • Laughing Child
    • 1907
    • Ashcan School/The 8
    • forthwright expression of painterly freedom
    • feathery, lively expressive brushstrokes
    • forms Art school - influential teacher
    • informal, not necessarily upperclass
    • The Wake of the Ferry II
    • John Sloan
    • 1907
    • Ashcan School
    • urban landscape = element
    • journalistic eye apparent in composition
    • bold brushwork, limited color palette of grays/blacks
    • ferry crossing (everyday experience in NY)
    • melancholy, loneliness, distance, isolation
    • tilted angle of ferry juxtaposed with diagonal line of wake
    • Balzac - The Open Sky
    • Edward Steichen
    • 1908
    • pictorialism
    • photo of Rodin sculpture - Rodin considered the piece to be the sum of his whole life
    • photo taken at night under moonlight to diffuse light
    • Child in a Carolina Cotton Mill
    • Lewis Hine
    • 1908
    • social reform - belief in the goodness of mankind
    • concerned people wouldn't believe his photos
    • wanted to show things that needed to be corrected and appreciated
    • girl dwarfed by machine she works at
    • in center of photo not looking at viewer
    • "endless" repetition of windows and machinery
    • communicate conditions of child labor 1. booming economy 2. widespread poverty lead to child labors continuation
    • George Bellows
    • Cliff Dwellers
    • 1913
    • muted colors
    • Ashcan School
    • urban subject of NY - lower class on the lower east side Manhatten (daily life)
    • loose brushwork, energetic
    • hot sumemr day - too hot to be inside therefore people are driven to the streets
    • class difference - lower/working class people are good subjects
    • Church Street El
    • Charles Sheeler
    • 1920
    • trained as photographer; friends with Dada members and Stieglitz
    • birds eye view
    • elevated rail and subway train
    • interested in patterns - geometric abstraction
    • cropped
    • shifted viewpoint
    • Radiator Building - Night, New York
    • Georgia O'Keefe
    • 1927
    • geometric abstract style - a reaction to people talking about feminine issues in all of her other pieces
    • simplification of form, economy of detail, nuanced version of view
    • view from her apartment
    • engaging with everchanging cityscape - relatively new addition to the skyline when she painted piece
    • The Figure 5 in Gold
    • Charles Demuth
    • 1928
    • precisionism
    • American movement
    • fascination with machine precision and machines in modern life
    • sharp edges
    • incorporated spatial discontinuity
    • inspired by poem "The Great Figure" by William Carlos Williams
  1. The Eight
    • 1907 National Academy of Design (Philly) rejected 8 artists; they formed their own exposition at Macbeth Gallery in NY in 1908
    • Leader: Robert Henri
    • diverse styles/subject matters
    • only 5 were Ashcan painters
  2. The Ashcan School
    • Realism - larger movement/style
    • Name: created by critic in 1930s used to describe NY group of artisits active 1905-1913; favored muted/earthy colors that looked as if they had been scraped from the furnace
    • Subjects: everyday objects, scenes, and people
    • often focus on lower class or seedy side of urban life
    • interested in vitality of city and occupants
    • Style: confront society with frank naturalism
  3. 291 Gallery
    • Alfred Stieglitz began holding photography exhibitions of NY in 1905
    • mixed mediums in displays - shows equality
    • obsessed with art as a high form - distinguished between ameteurs and artists
    • nucleus for American modernists
    • in close contact with artists/art movements in Europe
  4. How the Other Half Lives
    • publication of photojournalism by Jacob Riis
    • exposed the slums to middle/upper class in NY
    • 1880s
  5. Camera Work
    • published quarterly by Stieglitz from 1903-1917
    • independent from conservative influence, it spread photography and art in the US
  6. Pictorialism
    • photography movement 1885-1914
    • make connections between traditional art and photography
    • emulate painting
    • lenses, emulsions, dark room manipulation
    • example: Steichen
  7. Precisionism
    • photography movement in the US
    • anti-pictorialist
    • distinguishes photography from painting because it is in a moment - what is there when you take the picture
    • interested in sharp lines and little to no manipulation
    • American Gothic
    • Grant Wood
    • 1930
    • Regionalism
    • farmer and his spinster daughter in rural Iowa in front of clean house with vernacular architecture
    • gothic windows
    • dour expressions give image air of gloominess
    • quaint, humerous, hard working, "American"
    • Early Sunday Morning
    • Edward Hopper
    • 1930
    • national mindset of the great depression
    • generalized subjects: lonliness and isolation
    • scenes are still, muted, filled with empty space
    • handling of light: eerie, filtered, dreary light
    • Street is completely empty - why? a.) people don't have $$ to spend b.) isolation in the city "alone in a crowd" c.) light pole and fire hydrant are stand ins
    • regular repetition
    • makes it anonymous - could be mainstreet America anywhere
    • individuality vs universality
    • Aspects of Negro Life: From Slavery through Reconstruction
    • Aaron Douglas
    • 1932
    • stretching all the way back to Africa even though many members had never been there
    • silhouttes - both individual and universal
    • 3 sections read from right to left
    • 1. Emancipation Proclamation
    • 2. pointing towards capitol building shows strength of black leaders - encouraged people to vote/participate
    • 3. KKK - rise of white supremacy groups but they are placed in background
    • juxtaposes positive and negative thoughts/events/groups
    • elements of nature unify piece
    • The Ballad of the Jealous Lover of Lone Green Valley
    • Thomas Hart Benton
    • 1934
    • Story: the man is convinced his fiance is cheating on him so he kills her. The musicians in the foreground are playing the ballad, telling the story.
    • collapses time and space - intense composition with a lot of figures and movement
    • swirls of color/line - aesthetic style and moves the viewer's eye through painting
    • metaphoric vision of music
    • Migrant Mother
    • Dorthea Lange
    • 1936
    • FSA Project (Farm Security Administration)
    • employed by the government - sent out to shoot specific subjects
    • reveals more about photographer and audience than subject of work
    • specific people in the image were removed because they gave the wrong impression of the family to average America
    • religious overtones - the Virgin Mary
    • emotion of mother's face - strength/anxiety
    • central position of mother, lack of father, direction of gaze, universal symbol
    • Pioneer Days and Early Settlers
    • Thomas Hart Benton
    • 1936
    • in Jefferson City in the state capitol
    • part of "A Social History of the State of Missouri"
    • primitive agriculture, horse training, lynching, grain elevators, politics, native Americans - the good and the bad of Missouri's history
    • 13 panels: 6 history, 2 social, 5 folklore
    • complex composition, fluidity of imagery, simplified figures, and rubbery distortion
    • Sharecropper's Family, Hale County Alamaba
    • Walker Evans
    • 1936
    • from book Let Us Now Praise Famous Men
    • photo turned away from FSA
    • emphasizes plight of families in extreme poverty (house = shack) (dirty clothes, no shoes) (care worn faces)
    • family was unhappy with the way they were portrayed
    • The Migration Series, Panel No. 1
    • Jacob Lawrence
    • 1940
    • dynamic cubism
    • narrative series - story telling through tiles
    • causes of migration and problems created by joining new workforce
    • Nighthawks
    • Hopper
    • 1942
    • looks like a film still - time is suspended and motion is stopped
    • echos isolation of contemporary urban life
    • muted, filled with empty space
    • highly vulnerable because of huge window but at the same time they are safe/in a refuge because they are inside
  8. The Harlem Renaissance
    • movement beginning in Harlem, NY
    • Great migration of African Americas to northern areas
    • big, unified AfAm movement
    • any conception of negros had to be created by blacks themselves
    • 1920s
  9. Regionalism
    • subset of American scene painting
    • American scene: "America painted as America sees itself."
    • Regionalism is specifically located in the rural Midwest
    • interest in small town, rural life
    • America's cultural backbone
    • reaction to abstract forms
    • reassuring images of America - aka American realism, naturalism
    • tighter lines, recognizable subjects
    • nostalgic and mythological
  10. Farm Security Administration photography project
    • Federal Arts Project - segment of Work's Progress Administration (WPA)
    • New Deal Agency - provided jobs for unemployed public projects
    • combat rural poverty
    • challenges of rural poverty - photographers/writers documented them
    • Roy Strker wanted mainstream America to understand what was going on - created a file for all negatives - which in turn made them universal
  11. Let Us Now Praise famous Men
    • detailed account of 3 families living in the south in poverty
    • photographers and writers were sent by Fortune Magazine
    • Walker Evan's photography with James Ag's text

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