Experimental Exam 2

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  1. Descriptive research:
    • to describe the characteristics or behaviors of a given population in a systematic and accurate fashion
    • usually a survey
  2. representative sample:
    • on from which we can draw accurate, unbiased estimates of the characteristics of the larger population
    • we can draw accurate inferences about the population from data obtained from a sample only if it is representative
  3. sampling error:
    causes results obtained from the sample to differ from what would have been obtained had the entire population been studied
  4. margin of error:
    indicateds the degree to which the data obtained from the sample are expected to deviate from the population as a whole
  5. simple random sampling:
    • every possible sample of the desired size has the same chance of being selected from the population
    • ex) we want to select a sample of 200 PPTs from a school district that has 5000 students; if we wanted a simple random sample we would select our sample in such a way that every possible combination of 200 students has the same probability of being chosen
  6. stratified random sampling:
    • a variation of random sampling
    • rather than selecting cases directly from the population, we first divide the population into two or more strata
    • ex) the researcher might want to compare younger respondents to older respondents; first stratifying the sample, the researcher ensure that there will be an ample number of both young and old respondents in the sample
  7. convenience sampling:
    • researchers use whatever participants are readily available
    • ex) sona, most of the psychology studies
  8. What are the 3 measures of central tendency?
    • mean
    • median
    • mode
  9. what is correlation coefficient?
    a statistic that indicates the degree to which two variables are related to one another in a linear fashion
  10. what is the numerical range for correlation coefficient?
    -1 to +1
  11. What 2 pieces of information are communicated in the correlation coefficient?
    • positive or negative relationship
    • strength of relationship
  12. coefficient of determination:
    • the square of the correlation coefficient
    • indicates the proportion of variance in one variable that can be accounted for by the other variable
  13. restricted range:
    • a set of data in which PPTs scores are confined to a narrow range of the possible scores
    • correlations with restricted range are smaller
  14. outliers:
    • scores that are so obviously deviant from the remainder of the data that one can question whether they belong in the data set at all
    • they can lead to erroneous conclusions about the strength of the correlation b/w variables
  15. What are the three characteristics that define an experiment?
    • 1) manipulation of IV
    • 2) random assignment - researcher must have the power to assign participants to the various experimental conditions in a way to assure their initial equivalence
    • 3) control for confounds
  16. what are 3 types of IVs (manipulation)?
    • environmental manipulations: involve experimental modification of the participants' physical or social environment
    • instructional manipulations: vary the variable through verbal instructions that participants reeive
    • invasive manipulations: involve creating physical chnages in the participant's body through surgery or the administration of drugs
  17. manipulation check:
    a question that is designed to determine whether the IV was manipulated successfully
  18. simple random assignment:
    • random assignment of participants to groups
    • most basic and important control procedure
    • every participant has an equal probability of being placed in any condition
    • important because it is a powerful control procedure b/c accounts for all unwanted subject variables
  19. random sample:
    taking a random group from a larger group
  20. random assignment:
    randomly splitting the sample into groups
  21. matched random assignment:
    a procedure for assigning participants to experimental conditions in which participants are first matched into homegeneous blocks and then participants within each block are assigned randomly to conditions
  22. between groups:
    • participants assigned to on group (random or matched assignment)
    • compare differences in behavior b/w different groups
  23. within-subject design:
    • single group of participants exposed to ever IV level
    • eliminated the need for random assignment
    • 100% sure that PPTs in each group dont differ
  24. What are the stregths of within-subject design?
    • controls for individual differences
    • few PPTs are needed
    • Instructions may take less time
  25. What are the weaknesses of within-subject design?
    • order effects
    • b/c ppts experience all conditions, is easier to figure out the hypothesis
  26. complete counterbalancing:
    present every possible order
  27. partial counterbalancing:
    choose limited number of orders at random
  28. latin square design:
    each condition appears once at each ordianl position
  29. internal validity:
    the degree to which a researcher draws accurate conclusions about the effects of the independent variable
  30. attrition:
    the loss of ppts during a study
  31. experimenter expectancy effects:
    a situation in which a researchers expectations about the outcome of a study influences ppts reactions
  32. demand characteristics:
    aspects of a study that indicate to ppts how they are expected to respond
  33. double-blind procedure:
    neither the ppts nor the experimenters who interact with them know which experimental condition a ppt is in at the time the study is conducted
  34. external validitiy:
    the degree to which the results obtained in one study can be replicated or generalized to other samples, research settings, and procedures
  35. problems with correlational research:
    • restricted range
    • outliers
    • reliability of measure
  36. problems with causality:
    • causality
    • reverse causality
    • confounds
  37. representative sample:
    • means your sample is accurate of the population
    • allows accurate, unbiased estimates
  38. internal reliability:
    consistency of measures
  39. external reliability
    realism to outside world
  40. what is the best way to increase significance?
    increase the sample size
  41. sampling frame:
    a list of the members of a population
  42. error of estimation
    the degree to which data obtained from a sample are expected to deviate from the population as a whole
  43. most correlational research satisfies what criteria for determining causality?
  44. confederate:
    an accomplis of an experimenter whom participants assume to be another participant or bystander
  45. condition:
    one level of an IV
  46. confounding:
    a condition that exists in experimental research when something other than the IV differs systematically among the experimental conditions
Card Set:
Experimental Exam 2
2011-10-31 22:09:30
Experimental Psychology

experimental stuff
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