Experimental Exam 2

The flashcards below were created by user princesspink21 on FreezingBlue Flashcards.

1. Descriptive research:
• to describe the characteristics or behaviors of a given population in a systematic and accurate fashion
• usually a survey
2. representative sample:
• on from which we can draw accurate, unbiased estimates of the characteristics of the larger population
• we can draw accurate inferences about the population from data obtained from a sample only if it is representative
3. sampling error:
causes results obtained from the sample to differ from what would have been obtained had the entire population been studied
4. margin of error:
indicateds the degree to which the data obtained from the sample are expected to deviate from the population as a whole
5. simple random sampling:
• every possible sample of the desired size has the same chance of being selected from the population
• ex) we want to select a sample of 200 PPTs from a school district that has 5000 students; if we wanted a simple random sample we would select our sample in such a way that every possible combination of 200 students has the same probability of being chosen
6. stratified random sampling:
• a variation of random sampling
• rather than selecting cases directly from the population, we first divide the population into two or more strata
• ex) the researcher might want to compare younger respondents to older respondents; first stratifying the sample, the researcher ensure that there will be an ample number of both young and old respondents in the sample
7. convenience sampling:
• researchers use whatever participants are readily available
• ex) sona, most of the psychology studies
8. What are the 3 measures of central tendency?
• mean
• median
• mode
9. what is correlation coefficient?
a statistic that indicates the degree to which two variables are related to one another in a linear fashion
10. what is the numerical range for correlation coefficient?
-1 to +1
11. What 2 pieces of information are communicated in the correlation coefficient?
• positive or negative relationship
• strength of relationship
12. coefficient of determination:
• the square of the correlation coefficient
• indicates the proportion of variance in one variable that can be accounted for by the other variable
13. restricted range:
• a set of data in which PPTs scores are confined to a narrow range of the possible scores
• correlations with restricted range are smaller
14. outliers:
• scores that are so obviously deviant from the remainder of the data that one can question whether they belong in the data set at all
• they can lead to erroneous conclusions about the strength of the correlation b/w variables
15. What are the three characteristics that define an experiment?
• 1) manipulation of IV
• 2) random assignment - researcher must have the power to assign participants to the various experimental conditions in a way to assure their initial equivalence
• 3) control for confounds
16. what are 3 types of IVs (manipulation)?
• environmental manipulations: involve experimental modification of the participants' physical or social environment
• instructional manipulations: vary the variable through verbal instructions that participants reeive
• invasive manipulations: involve creating physical chnages in the participant's body through surgery or the administration of drugs
17. manipulation check:
a question that is designed to determine whether the IV was manipulated successfully
18. simple random assignment:
• random assignment of participants to groups
• most basic and important control procedure
• every participant has an equal probability of being placed in any condition
• important because it is a powerful control procedure b/c accounts for all unwanted subject variables
19. random sample:
taking a random group from a larger group
20. random assignment:
randomly splitting the sample into groups
21. matched random assignment:
a procedure for assigning participants to experimental conditions in which participants are first matched into homegeneous blocks and then participants within each block are assigned randomly to conditions
22. between groups:
• participants assigned to on group (random or matched assignment)
• compare differences in behavior b/w different groups
23. within-subject design:
• single group of participants exposed to ever IV level
• eliminated the need for random assignment
• 100% sure that PPTs in each group dont differ
24. What are the stregths of within-subject design?
• controls for individual differences
• few PPTs are needed
• Instructions may take less time
25. What are the weaknesses of within-subject design?
• order effects
• b/c ppts experience all conditions, is easier to figure out the hypothesis
26. complete counterbalancing:
present every possible order
27. partial counterbalancing:
choose limited number of orders at random
28. latin square design:
each condition appears once at each ordianl position
29. internal validity:
the degree to which a researcher draws accurate conclusions about the effects of the independent variable
30. attrition:
the loss of ppts during a study
31. experimenter expectancy effects:
a situation in which a researchers expectations about the outcome of a study influences ppts reactions
32. demand characteristics:
aspects of a study that indicate to ppts how they are expected to respond
33. double-blind procedure:
neither the ppts nor the experimenters who interact with them know which experimental condition a ppt is in at the time the study is conducted
34. external validitiy:
the degree to which the results obtained in one study can be replicated or generalized to other samples, research settings, and procedures
35. problems with correlational research:
• restricted range
• outliers
• reliability of measure
36. problems with causality:
• causality
• reverse causality
• confounds
37. representative sample:
• means your sample is accurate of the population
• allows accurate, unbiased estimates
38. internal reliability:
consistency of measures
39. external reliability
realism to outside world
40. what is the best way to increase significance?
increase the sample size
41. sampling frame:
a list of the members of a population
42. error of estimation
the degree to which data obtained from a sample are expected to deviate from the population as a whole
43. most correlational research satisfies what criteria for determining causality?
covariation
44. confederate:
an accomplis of an experimenter whom participants assume to be another participant or bystander
45. condition:
one level of an IV
46. confounding:
a condition that exists in experimental research when something other than the IV differs systematically among the experimental conditions
 Author: princesspink21 ID: 113477 Card Set: Experimental Exam 2 Updated: 2011-10-31 22:09:30 Tags: Experimental Psychology Folders: Description: experimental stuff Show Answers: