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  1. Esophagus
    • -25-30 cm long
    • -Starts at the level of C6
    • -Ends below diaphragm (T10-T12)
    • -Distal part may act as sphincter
    • -40cm from incisor teeth
    • -Accompanied by 2 vagus nerves and the enter through esophageal hiatus (T10)
    • -3 narrowings:
    • 1-upper sphincter
    • 2- Aortic narrowing
    • 3- Diaphragmatic narrowing
  2. Esophagus function/ NN
    • Function- conveying the bolus of food to the stoach
    • NN- sympathetic and parasympathetic (vagus)
  3. What is Cardia
    where esophagus enters the stomach
  4. Blood supply of Esophagus
    • Upper part: (cervical portion): by inf. /thyroid A.
    • Middle part: (thoracic portion) by thoracic aorta and from bronchial arteries.
    • Lower part: left gastric artery (from celiac artery and inferior phrenic artery
  5. Esophagus Venous drainage:
    • Inferior thyroid vein, azygos, hemiazaygos, and gastric veins.
    • **Gastric veins drain into the portal vein, therefore is a link b/w portal and the systemic circulation (Porto-Caval anastomosis).
  6. Esophageal Varices: in Liver Cirrhosis
    • Histology: Mucosa: stratified non-keratinized squamous epithelium (in Cardia, it is columnar, like rest of the GI tract).
    • 4- Muscularis mucosa
    • 5- Submucosa
    • 6- Tunica muscularis- consist of inner circular and outer longitudinal muscular layers
    • 7- adventitia
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