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Name some animal behaviors (7 things)
- Increasing food supply ( territoriality )
- Reduce predation and competition ( hiding/running )
- Selecting habitats
- Surviving harsh environments ( nest building )
- Selecting mates
- Increasing offspring survival (parental care )
- Defending territories
What is an example of defending territory?
Female tiger marking territory
What is an example of a learned behavior?
Japanese macaques learned to wash food, they pass on this behaviors to offspring
What is the cost-benefit analyses?
Behavior are based on the concept that animals have limited time and energy
What are 3 requirements for adaptive traits (or natural selection.
- Variation trait - (individuals in a population )
- Heritable trait - (genetic basis)
- Differential survival and reproduction
What are the adaptations of the coastal population of garter snakes?
- Live on land
- Feed on slugs
What are the adaptations of the Inland population of garter snakes?
- Live in ponds
- Feed on frogs and fish
Avoidance can be what type of behavior?
Adaptive, an absence of behavior
Directly or indirectly?
1. Food, predator and parasite avoidance, refuge, etc.
2. Mating behavior ( acquisition of mates, offspring survival )
- Indirectly affect fitness
- Directly affects fitness
What should natural selection to to the costs and benefits?
- Minimize costs
- Maximize benefits
What are 6 costs of sexual reproduction?
- Mate location, energy costs, loss of gametes
- Competition among males ( usually )
- Increased risk of predation / disease
- Meiosis slower than mitosis
- Disruption of favorable gene combinations
- 50% of genes lost
What are some aspects of asexual reproduction?
- 100 % of genes transferred
- Deleterious recessive genes protected
- Low costs and fast
What are 3 hypotheses of why some use sexual reproduction?
- Removes accuulated mutations, repairs DNA
- Diversification of offspring - Tangled Bank hypothesis
- Keep pace with rapidly evolving parasites/disease - Red Queen hypothesis
- Partial support for all three
Costs and benefits of males and females, why does natural selection work on them?
- Female gamete size > male gamete size
- Female investment in offspring > males (usually)
- Natural selection works differently on males and females of the same species
- Sexual selection
Adaptations for sexual selection ( mating strategies ) in males
- Females are choosier unless there has been increasing investment then males become choosier.
- - males evolve strategies to attract females
- - males fight and expend energy to gain access to females
- - Males more promiscuous than females
What are 4 things males to to cheat if it increases fitness?
- False displays / advertising
- Extra-pair copulations (DNA fingerprinting)
- Chastity plugs ( squirrels )
What is altruistic behavior?
A sense of unconditional concern for the welfare of others
Give an example of an altruistic behavior.
Workers of social insects forego reproduction to help a queen reproduce.
What is kin selection
A form of natural selection based upon genetic relatedness?
What are 3 key concepts of kin selection?
- Individuals increase their own fitness by helping relatives ore even foregoing reproduction
- Degree of helping or sacrifice is positively correlated with relatedness
- natural selection based upon genetic relatedness
What is a prediction about being adaptive?
If adaptive then not reproducing should increase individual fitness