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Contingency Research assesses the;
relationship between all combinations of categories of 2 variables

A X^{2} test for independence can be used to;
Assess the statistical significance of contingency table data

In correlational research, corr. coefficients describe the strength and direction of relations, which permit prediction. Correlations have suspect internal validity because of;
 the third variable problem
 Truncated range
 unknown direction of causation

The crosslaggedpanel correlation procedure enhances the;
internal validity

Experiments are internally valid because;
the causal variables and the direction of causation are known

An experiment occurs when a particular comparison is produced while;
other aspects of the situation are held constant

An experimental group receives;
the important levelof the independent variable

A control group serves as the;
untreated comparison group or receives a comparison level of the independent variable

Independent variable=
is manipulated

Dependent variable =
is observed

Your choice of participants, variables, and setting may all;
Distort the underlying psychological processes.

Generalization can be enhanced by using;
 different participants
 different variables
 different settings

Between Subjects Design Definition
 Separate groups of subjects receive different levels of the independent variable. To control for individual differences
 Randomly assign subjects to groups or
 Match subject characteristics in each group

Within subjects Design definition
 All subjects reveive all levels of the I.V.. To try to minimize carryover effects
 Randomize the order of treatments, or
 Counterbalance the order of treatments

Increasing internal valididty in case studies use:
 Deviant case analysis
 Nonequivelent control
 Multiple dependent variables

Icreasing internal validity in interrupted time series studies use:
 Nonequivalent control
 Multiple dependent variables

Matching, be alert for:
 synergism
 regression artifacts

Contingency Table:
a tabular presentation of allcombinations of categories of 2 variables, which allows the relationships between the 2 to be examined

Relational Research
attempts to determine how 2 ormore variables are related to each other

If youwant to stitistically analyze the data in a table,youwould use
chi square test forindependence

Joint method of agreement and difference
If A occurs, then so will X, and if A does not occur, then neither will X

Experimental Group
Group that gets the independent variable

The designation for the untreated subjects is the ;
control group

Null Result
Failure of an independent variable to control behavior

Floor Effect
Already at the bottom of the scale. Cant do any worse

Ceiling Effect
Cant get any higher... 100%

Confoundings
 unintended effects
 Their influence "confuses" the proper interpretation of the results

Demand characteristics
refers to the reactivity of the participants

Negativistic Subject Role
participant who exhibits this role will attempt to sabotage ormess up the experiment

Simulated experiment
is a way to control reactivity

Variable Representative
 the ability to generalize across different experimental manipulations
 Example: ifa researcher were interested in whether background noise hurt reading comprehension, he might compare music with silence

Counterbalancing refers to:
the systematic variation ofthe order of conditions in an experiment

Observationtreatmentobservation cannot be true reversal designs for 2 reasons:
 1. the treatment is not under the experimenters control
 2. most natural treatments, such as curriculum revision, are likely tohave long term carryover effects

Maturation
changes that nearly always can confound the results ofresearch concerned with natural treatments

A major source of confounding in a long term time series is called
mortality

Subject variable
 is some measurable characteristic of people
 Examples: IQ, weight, anxiety, race...

Synergism
means that the combined effects of 2 or more variables are notadditive  the combined effect is greater than the sum of the individual components  which means that the variablesinteract

Crosssectional method
Select children of different ages and then randomly assign half ofeach age group to one of the strategy conditions

Time lag design
 aims at determining the effects of time of testing while holding age constant
 Design indicated along the diagonal

Cross sequential design
involves testing 2 ormore age groups at 2 ormore time periods

population
a complete set of measures

Sample
is a subsetof a population

Standard error of the mean
is the standard deviation of a distribution of sample means

