# Research methods

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1. Contingency Research assesses the;
relationship between all combinations of categories of 2 variables
2. A X2 test for independence can be used to;
Assess the statistical significance of contingency table data
3. In correlational research, corr. coefficients describe the strength and direction of relations, which permit prediction. Correlations have suspect internal validity because of;
• the third variable problem
• Truncated range
• unknown direction of causation
4. The cross-lagged-panel correlation procedure enhances the;
internal validity
5. Experiments are internally valid because;
the causal variables and the direction of causation are known
6. An experiment occurs when a particular comparison is produced while;
other aspects of the situation are held constant
the important levelof the independent variable
8. A control group serves as the;
untreated comparison group or receives a comparison level of the independent variable
9. Independent variable=
is manipulated
10. Dependent variable =
is observed
11. Your choice of participants, variables, and setting may all;
Distort the underlying psychological processes.
12. Generalization can be enhanced by using;
• different participants
• different variables
• different settings
13. Between Subjects Design Definition
• Separate groups of subjects receive different levels of the independent variable. To control for individual differences
• -Randomly assign subjects to groups or
• Match subject characteristics in each group
14. Within subjects Design definition
• All subjects reveive all levels of the I.V.. To try to minimize carryover effects
• -Randomize the order of treatments, or
• -Counterbalance the order of treatments
15. Increasing internal valididty in case studies use:
• Deviant case analysis
• Nonequivelent control
• Multiple dependent variables
16. Icreasing internal validity in interrupted time series studies use:
• Nonequivalent control
• Multiple dependent variables
• synergism
• regression artifacts
18. Contingency Table:
a tabular presentation of allcombinations of categories of 2 variables, which allows the relationships between the 2 to be examined
19. Relational Research
attempts to determine how 2 ormore variables are related to each other
20. If youwant to stitistically analyze the data in a table,youwould use
chi square test forindependence
21. Joint method of agreement and difference
If A occurs, then so will X, and if A does not occur, then neither will X
22. Experimental Group
Group that gets the independent variable
23. The designation for the untreated subjects is the ;
control group
24. Null Result
Failure of an independent variable to control behavior
25. Floor Effect
Already at the bottom of the scale. Cant do any worse
26. Ceiling Effect
Cant get any higher... 100%
27. Confoundings-
• unintended effects
• Their influence "confuses" the proper interpretation of the results
28. Demand characteristics-
refers to the reactivity of the participants
29. Negativistic Subject Role
participant who exhibits this role will attempt to sabotage ormess up the experiment
30. Simulated experiment
is a way to control reactivity
31. Variable Representative
• the ability to generalize across different experimental manipulations
• Example: ifa researcher were interested in whether background noise hurt reading comprehension, he might compare music with silence
32. Counterbalancing refers to:
the systematic variation ofthe order of conditions in an experiment
33. Observation-treatment-observation cannot be true reversal designs for 2 reasons:
• 1. the treatment is not under the experimenters control
• 2. most natural treatments, such as curriculum revision, are likely tohave long term carryover effects
34. Maturation-
changes that nearly always can confound the results ofresearch concerned with natural treatments
35. A major source of confounding in a long term time series is called
mortality
36. Subject variable
• is some measurable characteristic of people
• Examples: IQ, weight, anxiety, race...
37. Synergism
means that the combined effects of 2 or more variables are notadditive - the combined effect is greater than the sum of the individual components - which means that the variablesinteract
38. Cross-sectional method-
Select children of different ages and then randomly assign half ofeach age group to one of the strategy conditions
39. Time lag design
• aims at determining the effects of time of testing while holding age constant
40. Cross sequential design
involves testing 2 ormore age groups at 2 ormore time periods
41. population
a complete set of measures
42. Sample
is a subsetof a population
43. Standard error of the mean
is the standard deviation of a distribution of sample means

### Card Set Information

 Author: faulkebr ID: 113503 Filename: Research methods Updated: 2011-11-01 14:58:40 Tags: Concept Summaries Folders: Description: Test 2 Show Answers:

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