Research methods

Card Set Information

Research methods
2011-11-01 10:58:40
Concept Summaries

Test 2
Show Answers:

  1. Contingency Research assesses the;
    relationship between all combinations of categories of 2 variables
  2. A X2 test for independence can be used to;
    Assess the statistical significance of contingency table data
  3. In correlational research, corr. coefficients describe the strength and direction of relations, which permit prediction. Correlations have suspect internal validity because of;
    • the third variable problem
    • Truncated range
    • unknown direction of causation
  4. The cross-lagged-panel correlation procedure enhances the;
    internal validity
  5. Experiments are internally valid because;
    the causal variables and the direction of causation are known
  6. An experiment occurs when a particular comparison is produced while;
    other aspects of the situation are held constant
  7. An experimental group receives;
    the important levelof the independent variable
  8. A control group serves as the;
    untreated comparison group or receives a comparison level of the independent variable
  9. Independent variable=
    is manipulated
  10. Dependent variable =
    is observed
  11. Your choice of participants, variables, and setting may all;
    Distort the underlying psychological processes.
  12. Generalization can be enhanced by using;
    • different participants
    • different variables
    • different settings
  13. Between Subjects Design Definition
    • Separate groups of subjects receive different levels of the independent variable. To control for individual differences
    • -Randomly assign subjects to groups or
    • Match subject characteristics in each group
  14. Within subjects Design definition
    • All subjects reveive all levels of the I.V.. To try to minimize carryover effects
    • -Randomize the order of treatments, or
    • -Counterbalance the order of treatments
  15. Increasing internal valididty in case studies use:
    • Deviant case analysis
    • Nonequivelent control
    • Multiple dependent variables
  16. Icreasing internal validity in interrupted time series studies use:
    • Nonequivalent control
    • Multiple dependent variables
  17. Matching, be alert for:
    • synergism
    • regression artifacts
  18. Contingency Table:
    a tabular presentation of allcombinations of categories of 2 variables, which allows the relationships between the 2 to be examined
  19. Relational Research
    attempts to determine how 2 ormore variables are related to each other
  20. If youwant to stitistically analyze the data in a table,youwould use
    chi square test forindependence
  21. Joint method of agreement and difference
    If A occurs, then so will X, and if A does not occur, then neither will X
  22. Experimental Group
    Group that gets the independent variable
  23. The designation for the untreated subjects is the ;
    control group
  24. Null Result
    Failure of an independent variable to control behavior
  25. Floor Effect
    Already at the bottom of the scale. Cant do any worse
  26. Ceiling Effect
    Cant get any higher... 100%
  27. Confoundings-
    • unintended effects
    • Their influence "confuses" the proper interpretation of the results
  28. Demand characteristics-
    refers to the reactivity of the participants
  29. Negativistic Subject Role
    participant who exhibits this role will attempt to sabotage ormess up the experiment
  30. Simulated experiment
    is a way to control reactivity
  31. Variable Representative
    • the ability to generalize across different experimental manipulations
    • Example: ifa researcher were interested in whether background noise hurt reading comprehension, he might compare music with silence
  32. Counterbalancing refers to:
    the systematic variation ofthe order of conditions in an experiment
  33. Observation-treatment-observation cannot be true reversal designs for 2 reasons:
    • 1. the treatment is not under the experimenters control
    • 2. most natural treatments, such as curriculum revision, are likely tohave long term carryover effects
  34. Maturation-
    changes that nearly always can confound the results ofresearch concerned with natural treatments
  35. A major source of confounding in a long term time series is called
  36. Subject variable
    • is some measurable characteristic of people
    • Examples: IQ, weight, anxiety, race...
  37. Synergism
    means that the combined effects of 2 or more variables are notadditive - the combined effect is greater than the sum of the individual components - which means that the variablesinteract
  38. Cross-sectional method-
    Select children of different ages and then randomly assign half ofeach age group to one of the strategy conditions
  39. Time lag design
    • aims at determining the effects of time of testing while holding age constant
    • Design indicated along the diagonal
  40. Cross sequential design
    involves testing 2 ormore age groups at 2 ormore time periods
  41. population
    a complete set of measures
  42. Sample
    is a subsetof a population
  43. Standard error of the mean
    is the standard deviation of a distribution of sample means