Fluid & Electrolytes & Blood Gas values

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Author:
imorales
ID:
11356
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Fluid & Electrolytes & Blood Gas values
Updated:
2010-03-20 14:42:14
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MS1
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Fluid & Electrolytes & Blood Gas values
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  1. Sodium
    135 to 145
  2. Hypernatremia
    • Na > 145
    • Intense thirst
    • Restlessness
    • Agitation
    • Seizure
    • Coma
    • Weight gain
    • Edema
    • Elevated BP & CVP

    Can be caused by DI, Osmotc diureses and saltwater near drowning.
  3. Hyponatremia
    • Na < 135
    • Confusion
    • Postural hypotension
    • Nausea and vomiting
    • Dry mucous membranes

    Can be caused by diarrhea, vomiting, diuretics, adrenal insufficiency, burns, weeping wounds
  4. Potassium
    3.5 to 5.5
  5. Hyperkalemia
    • > 5.5
    • Irritability
    • Anxiety
    • Abdominal cramping
    • Irregular pulse
    • Tall peaked T wave
    • Widening QRS
    • Cardiac irritability

    May be caused by acidosis, tissue catabolism, crush injuries, lysis of cells, renal disease, ace inhibitors.
  6. Hypokalemia
    • < 3.5
    • Fatigue
    • Muscle cramps
    • Paresthesia
    • Decreased DTR
    • Bradycardia

    May be caused by GI losses, renal losses, alkalosis, tissue repair, insulin administration, starvation.
  7. Calcium
    9 to 11
  8. Hypercalcemia
    • > 11
    • Lethargy weakness
    • Confusion, ataxia
    • Nephrolithiasis
    • Bone fractures

    May be caused by multiple myeloma, hyperparathyroidism, vitamin D overdose.
  9. Hypocalcemia
    • < 9
    • Hyperreflexia
    • Chvosteks sign
    • Trousseaus sign
    • Laryngeal spasm
    • Tetany & seizures

    Can be caused by chronic renal failure, elevated phosphorous, primary hypoparathyroidism, acute pancreatitis, chronic alcoholism.
  10. Hyperphosphatemia
    • Acute & chronic renal failure, kidneys unable to excrete phosphate.
    • Cancer states where calcium and phoshate bind.
  11. Hypophosphatemia
    Malnourished, malabsorptionsyndromes
  12. Hypermagnesemia
    • Renal failure
    • Adrenal insufficiency
  13. Hypomagnesemia
    • Chronic alcoholism
    • NG suction
    • Prolonged malnutrition
  14. PO2
    90 to 110
  15. Ph
    7.35 to 7.45
  16. PCO2
    35 to 45
  17. HCO3-
    22 to 26
  18. Isotonic
    • No net change.
    • Expands only the ECF. (0.9% NS) Ideal fluid replacement for patient with volume deficit.
  19. Hypotonic
    Fluid goes into the cell. (0.45% NS) Expands both compartments. Do not use for fluid resucitation.
  20. Hypertonic
    Fluid is pulled out of the cell. (D10%) Expands ECF by pulling water out of the cells. Unchecked can cause volume overload.
  21. ABG Interpretation
    • First name = Compensated or uncompensated
    • Last name = alkalosis or acidosis
    • Look at Ph for first and last name (7.35 – 7.45)
    • < 7.35 = uncompensated acidosis
    • 7.35 to 7.40 = compensated acidosis
    • > 7.45 = uncompensated alkalosis
    • 7.40 to 7.45 = compensated alkalosis

    • Middle name = respiratory or metabolic
    • Look at PCO2 and PCO3
    • CO2 – respiratory component (Acid) (35-45)
    • <35 = respiratory alkalosis
    • >45 = respiratory acidosis
    • CO3 – metabolic component (Base) (23-26)
    • <23 = metabolic acidosis
    • >27 = metabolic alkalosis´╗┐´╗┐

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