sex, gender and stratification

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Author:
Naheer
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113563
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sex, gender and stratification
Updated:
2011-11-04 16:30:28
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sociology
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chapter 4 and 7
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  1. define sex
    biological traits of men and women
  2. define gender
    social, cultural and psychological traits linked to males and females
  3. define transgendered
    • gender identity doesnt match sex assigned at birth
    • ex-crossdresser
  4. define transsexual
    opposite sex from birth which usually causes them to change appearance or operate
  5. what is compulsory heterosexuality
    you should only like genders of opposite sex
  6. define sexuality:
    activities that are intended to lead to erotic arousal
  7. what are sexual scripts?
    tell us how to behave sexually
  8. explain sexual continuum:
    • 7 point scale
    • bisexual is default way of being
    • world is not divided into sheeps and goats
  9. what is sexual orientation?
    way a person derives sexual pleasure
  10. what do essentialists observe?
    • believe gender is an essence i nhuman beings
    • male-female difference is sexual scripts, mate selection, sexual agression, jealousy etc...
  11. what are the most popular variants of essentialism?
    • brain studies
    • sociobiology
    • freud theory
  12. what do the brain studies of essentialism suggest
    • left hemisphere associated with language and right with visual and spatial skills
    • right hemisphere dominant in men
    • bundle fibres connecting hemisphere more abbundant in women allow them to have more feeling
  13. what does sociobiology of essentialism suggest
    most feminine women and masculine men had better chance of surviving and passing genes to offspring
  14. what does freud suggest
    • children at age 5 pay attention to genitals
    • gender differences in personality and behaviour from natomical sex differences is what children observe around age 3
  15. what are social contructionists
    gender and sexuality are products of social structure and culture and not of biological properties
  16. what are the three changes that led to gender inequality according to coial contructionists
    • warfare and conquest
    • plow agriculture
    • seperation of public and private spheres
  17. describe long distance warfare and conquest:
    • women should be ruled by men
    • laws reinforced womens sexual, economic and political subjugation to men
  18. describe plow agriculture
    made men more powerful in society due to men being stronger then women
  19. describe seperation of public and private spheres
    while men went public women ramined in private sphere
  20. what is the first critique of essentialism
    • ignore cultural and historical variability of gender and sexuality
    • margaret mead focused on rape and men typically display feminine behaviour
    • society and culture change rapidly without any apparent genetic change
  21. what is second critique for essentialism
    • essentialist ignore the fact that gender differences are declining rapidly and in some cases already dissapeared
    • 165 studies verbal ability representing 1.4 million found no difference verbal ability
    • 100 studies mathematics representing 4 million showed difference favoring females
  22. what is third critique for essentialism
    • research evidence by essentialist flawed
    • sociobiologist hacnt found genes for unequal division of labour between men and women
  23. what is fourth critique of essentialism
    • essentialist tend to generalize from the average, ignoring variations within gender groups
    • male and female arent really that different
    • women a little more agressive then men
  24. what is 5th critique of essentialism
    • essentialist exaggerate to the degree to which gender differences are unchangeable
    • egalitarian society reduce age gap in relationships
  25. what is the sixth critique of essentialism
    • essentialist offer explanation for gender differences that ignore role of power
    • some groups such as men are in greater power than other groups such as women
  26. define double work day
    female do their actual job and then household chores
  27. defone sex segregation
    • male successful at certain work more then females
    • result of sex typing
  28. define sex typing
    • given occupation appropriate for one sex versus other
    • women doctor, male babysitter
  29. define glass ceiling
    invisible barrier that prevent women to get to high levels
  30. define non stnadard work
    part time work, no benefits, part year, self employment, multiple jobs
  31. define power
    ability to impose will on others
  32. define prestige
    social ranking and respect
  33. define wealth
    economic resources to pay for neccessities of life
  34. why have women become involved in labour force since 1961
    • increase demand for service sector workers
    • decrease number children born
    • liberal attitude toward women in workplace
  35. what are four reasons why women earn less then men
    • less education, experience and senority
    • involved in sex seggregated non standard work
    • discrimination-same job and women earn less
    • devaluation of work performed by women
  36. what is meta analysis?
    take all studies and examine differences
  37. females earn approx ___% of what males do
    75
  38. what are the two sources of women opression?
    • capitalism
    • patriarchy
  39. explain social feminism
    • change two societies to make more egalitarian
    • social feminist believe laws of the state can be changed for positive social change in society
    • capitalist and patriarchy must be altered or eliminated to free women
    • capitalist benefit from women's work
  40. explain radical feminism
    • capitalism has little to do w/ female opression
    • women are opressed b/c they are women and its a male state
    • men are agressive and need to dominate women
    • state is enemy
  41. what does findlay argue?
    one weight shows people characters and if a women cant control her weight how can she control a corporation
  42. Findlay
    According to new england journal of medicine, overweight women were ____% less likely to marry and ___% more likely to live in poverty
    • 20
    • 10
  43. what do sociologists examine in regards to social self
    • I-action, subjective
    • Me- objective
    • generalized other- norms of society
  44. what did mathews find from her reading
    • girls suggested they wernt passive victims of beauty images
    • looking better menas acces to social group and power
    • other girls were most important audience
  45. what were the 4 groups mathew identified
    • elite- look good, know it and enjoy it
    • wannabees- want to chang to become elite
    • life in the middle- didnt buy into all other stuff
    • long term most personally satisfied individual
    • fringe- very unhappy
    • picked on

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