BIOL 223 Chapter 10-2

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christophertkennedy
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113576
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BIOL 223 Chapter 10-2
Updated:
2011-11-01 00:16:57
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anatomy physiology muscular system
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Study Cards for Chapter 10 BIOL 223 CSN
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  1. List the three types of connective tissue of muscle.
    • epimysium
    • perimysium
    • endomysium
  2. What structure is surrounded by the epimysium?
    the entire muscle
  3. The epimysium is comprised of what kind of tissue?
    dense irregular connective tissue
  4. What structure is surrounded by the perimysium?
    a muscle fascicle
  5. What type of tissue comprises the perimysium?
    dense irregular connective tissue
  6. What structures are surrounded by the endomysium?
    individual muscle fibers (cells)
  7. The endomysium is comprised mainly of _______ fibers.
    reticular
  8. At the ends of muscles, the three connective tissue layers combine to form what two things?
    • tendons
    • aponeurosis
  9. What cells act as embryonic percursors to muscle?
    myoblasts
  10. True or False: Myoblasts will fuse together to form muscle fibers.
    True
  11. What is the relationship between the number of myoblasts and the number of nuclei in a mature muscle fiber?
    each myoblast contributes one nucleus
  12. When does mitosis in muscle fibers stop?
    prior to birth
  13. What is the function of satellite cells on the muscle?
    aid in tissue repair
  14. Skeletal muscle is comprised of smaller units known as:
    fascicles
  15. Muscle fascicles are comprised of smaller units known as:
    muscle fibers
  16. Muscle fibers are comprised of individual units called:
    myofibrils
  17. List the structural units of muscle from largest to smallest.
    • muscle (bicep, rectus abdominis)
    • fascicle
    • fiber
    • myofibril
  18. What is the main function of sarcoplasmic reticulum?
    to store calcium ions
  19. When the transverse tubules depolarize the muscle, the sarcoplasmic reticulum releases calcium ions from what structure?
    terminal cisternae
  20. What anchors myosin filaments to the Z line?
    titin
  21. List the three functions of myosin heads discussed in lecture.
    • binds to active sites on actin molecules
    • pivots to allow for muscle contraction
    • can act as an ATPase
  22. On which actin structure will you find the active sites?
    G-actin (globe shape)
  23. Two strands of G-actin wind together in a sort of double helix to form:
    F-actin
  24. How does tropomyosin function during muscle contraction?
    • covers the active sites during rest
    • configuration change uncovers active sites to allow for contraction
  25. What will the 1st subunit of Troponin bind to?
    G actins
  26. What will the 2nd subunit of Troponin bind to?
    tropomyosin
  27. What will the 3rd subunit of Troponin bind to?
    calcium ions
  28. Which muscle fiber proteins are contractile proteins?
    • actin
    • myosin
  29. What role do contractile proteins play?
    actively shorten/contract the muscle
  30. Which proteins are regulatory proteins?
    • tropomyosin
    • troponin
  31. List the four structural proteins discussed in lecture.
    • titin
    • alpha actinin
    • myomesin
    • nebulin
  32. What structural protein contributes to muscle elasticity and attaches the thick filaments to the Z line?
    titin
  33. What structural protein makes up the Z line?
    alpha actinin
  34. What structural protein makes up the M line?
    myomesin
  35. What structural protein winds around the actin filaments, holds it together, and attaches it to the Z line.
    nebulin

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