Chem 32 ch. 10

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Ghoelix
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Chem 32 ch. 10
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2011-11-08 22:59:06
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oxidation reduction carboxylic metabolic
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Chem 32 ch. 10
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  1. What is dehydrogenation?
    When an alkane loses two H atoms, resulting in an alkene. The hydrogens are taken away.
  2. Dehydrogenation is normally difficult to make happen but is easier if...
    The hydrogens to be removed are near functional groups.

    The two hydrogens which are removed are transferred to another molecule rather than floating off as some kind of H2 molecule.
  3. What is carboxylic acid?
    H to O to C double to O

    H-O-C=O
  4. What is oxidation?
    Any reaction that removes two hydrogen atoms from an organic compound.
  5. What is a hydrogenation reaction?
    When two hydrogen atoms are -added- to an alkene to make an alkane.
  6. What is a reduction reaction?
    Any reaction in which hydrogen atoms are added to a molecule.

    ( called reduction because it reduces the oxidation state )?
  7. What is a carbonyl group?
    C double bonded to O, C=O
  8. Oxidyzing an alcohol ( C-O) creates a C=O double bond.
    Oxidyzing an alcohol ( C-O) creates a C=O double bond.

    • When:
    • O-H
    • |
    • C
    • |
    • H

    oxidizes, the Hs go away and a double bond is formed between the C and O, this is the carbonyl group.
  9. For alcohols to be oxidized it must have a hydrogen directly bonded to the carbon of the functional group.
    For alcohols to be oxidized it must have a hydrogen directly bonded to the carbon of the functional group.
  10. What do primary, secondary, and tertiary mean in regards to alcohol oxidation?
    Alcohols have C-O-H structure ( kinda ).

    If the C in this structure has only other Cs attatched to it then it cannotbe oxidized, there aren't enough Hs to be taken off.

    If the C that the O-H is attached to has one other C attached to it then it is Primary.

    If it has two Cs attached to it it is Secondary.

    If it has 3 Cs attached to it it is Tertiary.
  11. Carbonyl groups ( C=O ) can be reduced ( reduction ) to alcohols.
    C=O becomes H-C-O-H when H atoms are added.
  12. What is an aldehyde?
    Aldehydes will look like:

    • H
    • |
    • C=O
    • |
    • H

    or

    • C
    • |
    • H=O
    • |
    • H

    Aldehydes are named with "al" as the suffix.
  13. What is a ketone?
    Ketones look like:

    • C
    • |
    • C=O
    • |
    • C

    They have the suffix "one".
  14. Aldehydes and ketones can form hydrogen bonds with water.
    The O in ketones and aldehydes is negatively charged and can accept a positively charged hydrogen atom.
  15. What is disulfide?
    Two molecules with Thiol groups ( C-S-H ) that each lose their H and the Ss bond with each other.

    C-S-H + H-S-C = C-S-S-C ( disulfide, two sulfur ). This describes the oxidation ( loss of hydrogen ) of Thiol.
  16. What is a carboxylic acid group?
    It looks like:

    • C=O
    • |
    • O
    • |
    • H
  17. Oxidation can be the removal of hydrogen atoms from a molecule OR it can be the addition of oxygen atoms.
    Aldehyde:

    • C=O
    • |
    • H

    has an oxygen added between the C and H

    • C=O
    • |
    • O
    • |
    • H
    • to make carboxylic acid.
  18. How are carboxylic acids named?
    Just add "oic acid" to the end of the name.
  19. Carboxylic acids can form hydrogen bonds and have higher boiling points than regular hydrocarbons. They are also very water soluble, still following the 5:1 C:O ratio though.
    • Carboxylic acids can form hydrogen bonds and have higher boiling points
    • than regular hydrocarbons. They are also very water soluble, still
    • following the 5:1 C:O ratio though.
  20. How to identify fatty acids:
    Carboxylic acids containing 10 ore more carbon atoms are called fatty acids.

    This is because they are the building blocks of fatty acids.
  21. What is a coenzyme?

    What is a redox coenzyme?
    A coenzyme is a compound that helps an enzyme perform its catalyst functions.

    A redox ( reduction / oxidation ) coenzyme is a coenzyme that aids enzymes in their reduction and oxidation duties.
  22. What is NAD+?
    NAD+ is a redox coenzyme that is actually a polyatomic ion with a +1 charge that accepts the hydrogen atoms that are removed in most oxidation reactions.

    NAD+ +2H = NADH + H+
  23. What is FAD?
    FAD is a redox coenzyme that accepts the hydrogen atoms that are removed during -dhydrogenation- ( CH-CH = C=H ) reactions.

    FAD +2H = FADH2
  24. What is NADPH?
    NADPH is a redox coenzyme that supplies the hydrogen atoms that are added during reduction reactions.

    NADPH + H+ = NADP+ + 2H
  25. Acids donate a hydrogen atom to a base.
    Acids donate a hydrogen atom to a base.
  26. A carboxylic acid:
    C=O
    |
    O
    |
    H
    can lose its H to a water molecule when it is dissolved in water. This leaves the molecule with a negative charge, is named an ion, and also produces a hydronium, H3O molecule. This is called the ionization of an acid.
    • A carboxylic acid:
    • C=O
    • |
    • O
    • |
    • H
    • can lose its H to a water molecule when it is dissolved in water. This
    • leaves the molecule with a negative charge, is named an ion, and also
    • produces a hydronium, H3O molecule. This is called the ionization of an
    • acid.
  27. How to name caboxylic ions...
    • When the caboxylic acid
    • C=O
    • |
    • O
    • |
    • H
    • loses it's H, it becomes a caboxylic ion. The "ic acid" in its name is removed and replaced with "ate".
  28. Carboxylic ions bound to Na or K are more soluble in water than carboxylic acids.
    Carboxylic ions bound to Na or K are more soluble in water than carboxylic acids.
  29. What are caboxylic salts?
    Carboxylic salts are carboxlylic ions that are bound to a positive ion, like Na.
  30. Phenols and Thiols are acidic.
    The Hs can come off of either one and bond with water molecules or hydroxid OH- molecules.
  31. NAD+ accepts two hydrogen from different kinds of molecules.
    Polyatomic ion with a +1 charge

    Takes 2 H from another molecule

    One of the Hs bonds to NAD+ making NADH and the other H just kind of floats off as a proton, leaving its electron attached to NADH.

    NAD+ works with oxidation reactions ( removal of two hydrogen ) like dehydrogenation.

    NAD+ also helps in oxidation of aldehydes.

    Aldehyde O=C-H

    NAD+ takes the two Hs off of H2O, leaving the O which places itself between the C-H in the Aldehyde, thus oxidizing it and creating a carboxylic acid.

    So, NAD+ can take two hydrogens from different kinds of molecules.
  32. FAD accepts two hydrogen from neighboring Cs on a hydrocarbon chain, forming an alkene.
    Takes to hydrogen.

    FAD accepts two hydrogen from neighboring Cs on a hydrocarbon chain, forming an alkene.

    FAD + 2H --> FADH2
  33. NADP+ gives two Hydrogen to a molecule. Often used in reduction reactions where two hydrogen are added to a molecule.
    Gives two hydrogen.

    A little misleading, usually works in the form of NADPH + H+.

    The NADPH and a floating around Hydrogen proton ( H+ ) add the Hydrogen to a carbonyl group ( O=C ) or C=C carbon double bond creating a single bond H-O-C-H or alkane CH2-CH2.

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