Second bio quiz

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sarahny1
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Second bio quiz
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2011-11-02 17:54:28
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Second bio quiz
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  1. 3 parts of cell theory
    • 1.) All organisms are made up of cells. 2.) The
    • cell is the most basic unit of life. 3.) All
    • cells come from other living cells.
  2. exceptions to cell theory
    • 1 viruses (alive, if attached to a host cell, but not made of cells)
    • 2 chloroplasts and mitochondria (can reproduce independently, not a cell)
    • 3 the first cell (did not come from other living cells)
  3. Leeuwenhoek
    • 1632-1723
    • First to observe living cells and microorganisms under microscope
  4. Hooke
    • 1635-1708
    • Gave name "cells"
    • Studied structures in cork
  5. Brown
    • 1833
    • Names nucleus
  6. Scheiden
    • 1838
    • all plants are comprised of cells
  7. Schwann
    • 1839
    • all animals are comprised of cells
  8. Virchow
    • 1855
    • every cell originates from another cell
    • ("omnis cellula a cellula")
  9. Hypotonic
    • solution whose concentration of dissolved sunstances (solute) is less than that of the cell (more solvents)
    • less than .9% saline (NaCl)
  10. Hypertonic
    • solution whose concentration of dissolved sunstances (solute) is more than that of the cell (less solvents)
    • more than .9% saline (NaCl)
  11. Isotonic
    • solution whose concentration of dissolved sunstances (solute) is equal to that of the cell (same solvents)
    • equal to .9% saline (NaCl)
  12. Osmotic pressure
    Pressure resultant from the movement of water (osmosis)
  13. Endocytosis
    • (active)
    • import of material--> formation of vesciles
    • pinocytosis (drinking) and phagocytosis (eating)
    • VESICLES
  14. Cell fractionation
    • Rotation, separates out certain organelles
    • large nucleus and unbroken cells at the bottom at the tube when centrifuged
  15. Cilia
    • numerous
    • small
    • movement of fluids/particles thru wave movement
    • made of microtubules
  16. Flagella
    • Few
    • large
    • movement of the cell
    • ex: sperm cell
    • "beating movement"

    made of microtubules
  17. Endosymbiotic hypothesis
    • Anaerobic heterotrophic prokaryote "ate" an aerobic heterotrophic prokaryote, this creating the first eukaryotic cell
    • The aerobic heterotroph prokaryote became a mitochondria
    • Then "ate" cyanobacteria--> chloroplasts
  18. Symbiotic
    Interdependent relationship
  19. Sodium potassium pump
    • Sodium out, potassium in
    • Uses ATP (active)
  20. Exocytosis
    • export of material
    • vesicle fuses w/ cell membrane, materials leave cell
  21. Things only is plant cells
    • One large vacuole (careful: animal cells also have vacuoles, but they're smaller)
    • Chloroplasts
    • Cell wall
  22. Eukaryote
    Nuclear membrane, membrane-bound organelles, defined nucleus
  23. Turgor pressure
    Pressure in hypotonic plant cells
  24. Things only is animal cells
    • Lysosomes
    • Centrioles
  25. Cell size
    Smaller cell= bigger percentage penatrated
  26. Solutes and solvents
    • solute: water
    • solvent: salt
  27. Facilitated diffusion
    • "facilitated" by carrier proteins (integral proteins)
    • PASSIVE
  28. Diffusion
    • Movement across membrane
    • with concentration gradient
    • Passive
  29. Osmosis
    • Movement across membrane
    • with concentration gradient
    • Passive
    • Only applies to water
  30. Active transport
    • Endocytosis and exocytosis
    • Uses ATP
    • against concentration gradient
    • *ions normally don't transport passively, but will actively (think 3 sodium ions out, 2 potassium ions in)
  31. Homoginization
    the process of opening up cells
  32. Endo
    Inside
  33. Mitosis
    • Cell division
    • (centrioles)
  34. Cyclosis
    • Movement of cytoplasm, circling around inside cell
    • Aids biochem processes
  35. Cell membrane
    • Bilipid layer, integral and peripheral proteins
    • Semi-permiable
    • Fluid mosaic
    • Regulation
  36. Cell wall
    • Permeable
    • Rigidity
    • Nonliving
  37. Endomembrane system
    • Nuclear envelope, ER, golgi, vesicles
    • all involved in protein synthesis process
  38. Nuclear envelope/membrane
    • Cover nucleus
    • provides protection and regulation for nucleus
  39. Actin
    • mesh-like networks
    • a protein
    • in microfiliments
  40. Microvilli
    function: increase cell surface area
  41. Golgi
    • Network of curved sacs
    • receives protein and lipid filled vesicles from the ER
    • May also be involved in secretion
    • Membrane contains proteins
    • Storage and packaging

    think wifi symbol
  42. Ribosomes
    • Site of protein synthesis
    • Made in nucleolus
    • Made of RNA and proteins
    • Found in rough ER, cytoplasm
  43. Cytoplasm
    • All inside cell, outside nucleus
    • Cytosol (fluid) watery enviro
    • Suspends organelles provides regulated enviro for biochem processes
  44. Mitochondria
    • "Powerhouse"
    • Double membrane
    • Site of CELLULAR RESPIRATION
    • releases from food molecules, creates ATP
    • Cristae: surface area infolds
    • Matrix: inside

    Think: Bald man's head
  45. Nuclear pore
    • protein-lined channel
    • regulates the transportation of molecules in/out of nucleus
  46. Centrioles
    • Involved in mytosis
    • Spindle formation
    • Pull chromosomes
    • ONLY ANIMALS
  47. Vesicle
    • Membranous sac that stores substances (and can transport)
    • Small

    *Won't be drawn with anything inside
  48. Vacuole
    • Membranous sac that stores substances (and can transport)
    • Large(r than vesicle)
    • One is plant, many in animal
  49. Cytoskeleton
    • Provides structure
    • Microfiliments: actin (cytosis)
    • Microtubules: tubulin (larger, move vesicles)
    • --> cilia and flagella
  50. Grana
    • in mitochondria
    • groupings of thylakoids
    • chloroplasts here
    • site of light reactions
  51. Stroma
    • in mitochondria
    • everything not grana
    • glucose made here
    • dark reactions
  52. Chromatin
    the combination of DNA and proteins that make up the contents of the nucleus of a cell
  53. Nucleus
    Genetic control and reproduction
  54. Nucleolus
    • Site of ribosome synthesis
    • multiple: nucleoli
  55. Rough ER
    • Protein synthesis
    • Network of channels
  56. Smooth ER
    • RIGHT outside nucleus
    • non-protein synthesis (phospholipid synthesis)
    • network of channels
  57. Lysosomes
    • ONLY animal cells
    • Vesicles produced by golgi
    • Small saclike structures containing digestive enzymes
    • "Suicide sacs" to break down worn cell parts
    • Lysosomal storage disease: lack of some enzymes Function: digestion
  58. Chloroplasts
    • Have chlorophyll
    • Photosynthesis

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