bio-mechanics trunk and spine

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  1. What joint make up the spine and what are there joint types? What are these joints arthokinamatics?
    • Occipital-atlantal (OA) joint - condyloid - roll glide opposite (closed chain)
    • Atlantal-Axis joint (AA) - pivot - spin
    • C2-L5 - plane - just glide
  2. Types and functions of stabilizing tissues of the spine?
    Joint capsule - resists all extremes ecept extension when the arthokinamtics is only gliding.

    Transverse ligament (or cruxiform lig) - prevents postior translation of the dens, which because C1 has no body this prevents it from pushing on the spin.

    Ligamentum nuchae - (which becomes the supraspinous ligament in the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spine) - it restrics flexion of the spine

    interspinous ligament - thin and membranous, connect adjoining spinous processes and extend from the root to the apex of each process.

    Anterior and posterior Atlanto-occipital membranes -

    Tectorial membrane of the OA joint which becomes posterior longitudinal ligament - restricts flexion.

    Alar ligament of the AA joint - restricts rotation

    Interransverse ligament - restricts contralateral side bending.

    Anterior longitudinal ligament - restricts extension

    Posterior longitudinal ligament - restricts flexion

    Ligamentus flavum - restricts flexion

    Annulus fibrosus - restrics axial rotation

    anterior annulus fibrous - restricts extension

    Posterior annulus fibrous - restrics flexion

    Left side of the annulus fibrisus - restricts right side bending and vica versa

    Cercixal viscera - (esophagus and trachea - restrict extension)
  3. What is the difference between are proper and false ligament?
    • Proper ligaments -
    • Composed of Type I collagen fibers
    • Oriented in direction of the movement that they limit

    • False ligaments
    • Collagen fibers are arranged randomly, which limit their strength
  4. What three parts of the vertebrea interact to create vertebrea movement? and how?
    Transverse and spinous processes - acts as levers for muscle and ligament attachment.

    Apophyseal -formed between adjacent superior and inferior articular facet.

    interbody joints - acts as a shock absorber and stabilizer of the vertebral colum. Site of axis of rotation.
  5. Componets of interbody joints?
    Vertebral body -

    Verebral endplates

    • Vertebral disc - has two part the
    • which resist distraction, shear and torsion

    Annulus fibrosis - deforms outward against annulus, and the back pressure from the annulus pushes on nucleus - reinforcing the entire disc and passes load to next vetebra. Diversion takes time and reduces loading and by sharing the load reduced wear.

    Nucleus pulposis - is the pulp-like gel which functions as a hydraulic shock absorber. Moves in relation to spinal movements due to increased pressure.
  6. Explain what disc herniation?
    Nucleus pulposus pushes against neural tissue.

    Typically is in a posterior or posterior lateral direction.

    May or may not breakthrough the annulus fibrosus.

    Pain may be mechanical or neurogenic in nature.
  7. Osteokinematic in vertebral column?
    • Flexion/ Extension
    • Lateral flexion
    • Rotation
  8. Explain how you determine the roation of a vertebra? Explain T7-8 right rotation?
    right/left direction is determined by looking at which way the anterior surface of the superior vertebra is facing.

    T7-8 right rotation: point on anterior body of T7 rotates right while spinous process goes left.
  9. Divisions of the vertebral colum? and their components?
    • Cranio-cervical -
    • Occipital-atlantal - C1
    • Atlanto-axial - C2

    Intracervical apophyseal joints (C2-7)

    • Thoracic
    • Lumbar
    • Pelvis
  10. Motion and Arthokinamatics of OA joint? and AA joint?
    Flexion (nodding) - anterior roll and posterior glide on atlas.

    Extension - posterior roll and anterior glide on atlas

    • AA joint
    • Flexion - pivot forward

    Extension - pivot backward
  11. What direction do facets move in during spinal motions C2-7?
    Flexion - facets slide up - superior glide of superior vertenra on inferior vertebra.

    Extension – “facets slide down” - Posterior, inferior glide of superior vertebra on inferior vertebra
  12. What limits thoracic vertebra motion?
    Costotransverse and costovertebral joint

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bio-mechanics trunk and spine
2011-11-02 01:18:59

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