bio-mechanics trunk and spine
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What joint make up the spine and what are there joint types? What are these joints arthokinamatics?
- Occipital-atlantal (OA) joint - condyloid - roll glide opposite (closed chain)
- Atlantal-Axis joint (AA) - pivot - spin
- C2-L5 - plane - just glide
Types and functions of stabilizing tissues of the spine?
Joint capsule - resists all extremes ecept extension when the arthokinamtics is only gliding.
Transverse ligament (or cruxiform lig) - prevents postior translation of the dens, which because C1 has no body this prevents it from pushing on the spin.
Ligamentum nuchae - (which becomes the supraspinous ligament in the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spine) - it restrics flexion of the spine
interspinous ligament - thin and membranous, connect adjoining spinous processes and extend from the root to the apex of each process.
Anterior and posterior Atlanto-occipital membranes -
Tectorial membrane of the OA joint which becomes posterior longitudinal ligament - restricts flexion.
Alar ligament of the AA joint - restricts rotation
Interransverse ligament - restricts contralateral side bending.
Anterior longitudinal ligament - restricts extension
Posterior longitudinal ligament - restricts flexion
Ligamentus flavum - restricts flexion
Annulus fibrosus - restrics axial rotation
anterior annulus fibrous - restricts extension
Posterior annulus fibrous - restrics flexion
Left side of the annulus fibrisus - restricts right side bending and vica versa
Cercixal viscera - (esophagus and trachea - restrict extension)
What is the difference between are proper and false ligament?
- Proper ligaments -
- Composed of Type I collagen fibers
- Oriented in direction of the movement that they limit
- False ligaments
- Collagen fibers are arranged randomly, which limit their strength
What three parts of the vertebrea interact to create vertebrea movement? and how?
Transverse and spinous processes - acts as levers for muscle and ligament attachment.
Apophyseal -formed between adjacent superior and inferior articular facet.
interbody joints - acts as a shock absorber and stabilizer of the vertebral colum. Site of axis of rotation.
Componets of interbody joints?
Vertebral body -
- Vertebral disc - has two part the
- which resist distraction, shear and torsion
Annulus fibrosis - deforms outward against annulus, and the back pressure from the annulus pushes on nucleus - reinforcing the entire disc and passes load to next vetebra. Diversion takes time and reduces loading and by sharing the load reduced wear.
Nucleus pulposis - is the pulp-like gel which functions as a hydraulic shock absorber. Moves in relation to spinal movements due to increased pressure.
Explain what disc herniation?
Nucleus pulposus pushes against neural tissue.
Typically is in a posterior or posterior lateral direction.
May or may not breakthrough the annulus fibrosus.
Pain may be mechanical or neurogenic in nature.
Osteokinematic in vertebral column?
- Flexion/ Extension
- Lateral flexion
Explain how you determine the roation of a vertebra? Explain T7-8 right rotation?
right/left direction is determined by looking at which way the anterior surface of the superior vertebra is facing.
T7-8 right rotation: point on anterior body of T7 rotates right while spinous process goes left.
Divisions of the vertebral colum? and their components?
- Cranio-cervical -
- Occipital-atlantal - C1
- Atlanto-axial - C2
Intracervical apophyseal joints (C2-7)
Motion and Arthokinamatics of OA joint? and AA joint?
Flexion (nodding) - anterior roll and posterior glide on atlas.
Extension - posterior roll and anterior glide on atlas
- AA joint
- Flexion - pivot forward
Extension - pivot backward
What direction do facets move in during spinal motions C2-7?
Flexion - facets slide up - superior glide of superior vertenra on inferior vertebra.
Extension – “facets slide down” - Posterior, inferior glide of superior vertebra on inferior vertebra
What limits thoracic vertebra motion?
Costotransverse and costovertebral joint
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