Micro Lab Exam 2

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Micro Lab Exam 2
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2011-11-01 12:11:35
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Microbiology Laboratory Exam 2
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  1. Antimicrobial Agents
    control the growth of microbes
  2. disinfectants
    chemical agents used on inaminate objects to lower the level of microbes on thier surfaces
  3. antiseptics
    chemicals used on living tissue to decrease the number of microbes
  4. Bactericidal Agents
    cause temporary inhibition of growth of microbes
  5. -cidal
    means lethal
  6. -static
    means inhibiting
  7. Chemical methods of control: Disinfectants and Antiseptics
    Lysol, Greenworks, Pinesol, and 10% bleach were used, Lysol was found to be the most effective because the zone of inhibition around the lysol tab was the largest
  8. Antibiosis
    microbes that inhibit growth of other microbes, means "against life"
  9. antibiotic
    a substance that inhibits microbial growth
  10. antimicrobial drugs
    antimicrobial chemicals absorbed or used internally
  11. pathogen
    a disease causing organism
  12. disk inffusion method
    a Petri plate containing an Agar growth medium is inoculated uniformly with a microbe. Paper disks containing antimicrobial agents are placed on the Petri plate. During incubation, the antimicrobial agents diffuses from the disk. An effective agent will inhibit microbial growth
  13. Kirby- Bauer Test
    uses the disk infusion susceptibility test to determine the sensitivity or resistance of pathogenic bacteria to various antimicrobial compounds
  14. MIC- Minimum Inhibitory Concentration
    determined by testing for bacterial growth in dilutions of the antibiotic in nutrient broth
  15. For Disk-diffusion method: best antimicrobials
    • S.aureus- cephalothin
    • E.coli- chloramphenicol
    • P.aerunginosa- gentamicin
  16. Methods of action:
    • inhibit enzyme activity (sulfonamides)
    • cell wall synthesis (cephalosporins, beta lactams, glycopeptides,monobactams)
    • protein synthesis (aminoglycosides, macrolides,tetracyclines)
    • nucleic acid synthesis (quinolones)
  17. Normal Microbiota
    microorganisms that are more or less permanent
  18. transient microbiota
    microbes that are present for only a short time
  19. Hand Washing
    • 1-hands rinsed with water
    • 2-soap 15 sec
    • 3- soap 30sec
    • 4-soap 60sec
    • 5- hand sanitizer
    • Fifth spot should have no bacteria, while the first should have the most
    • antimicrobial soaps should have better results than deoderant soaps
    • pump soap should have better than bar soap
  20. restriction enzyme
    an enzyme that recognizes and cuts only one particular sequence of nucleotide bases in DNA and it cuts this sequence in the same way each time
  21. recognition sequences
    are palinodromes (inverted repeats)
  22. blunt ends
    resulting fragments have fully base-paired
  23. sticky ends
    resulting fragments have unpaired single strands
  24. Enzyme used for Genetic engineering
    Hind III
  25. adaptive immunity
    defense against a specific microorganism
  26. innate immunity
    all our defenses that protect us from invasion by any microorganism
  27. bactericidins
    proteins involved in innate immunity
  28. lysozyme
    an enzyme found in the body fluids that is capable of breaking down the cell walls of gram-positive bacteria and a few gram-negative bacteria.
  29. complement
    group of proetins found in normal serum that are involved in enhancing phagocytosis and lysis of bacteria
  30. ELISA technique: Immunoassays
    Immunoassays- types of tests used to diagnose diseases by using known antibodies to detect the presence of an antigen or by detecting specific antibodies present in a patient
  31. ELISA
    Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay
  32. ELISA technique: direct test
    • ┬×Direct test- enzyme-labeled
    • antibodies are used to identify an antigen. A known antibody is absorbed into
    • the wells of a microtiter plate. The unknown microorganism from the patient is
    • added to the wells. If the antibody in the well is specific for the
    • microorganism, the microbe will bind to the antibody. A second antibody
    • specific for the antigen is added and it is linked to an enzyme. The reaction
    • between the antigen and the antibody is made visible by the addition of the
    • substrate for the enzyme.
  33. ELISA tecnhique: indirect test
    • ┬×Indirect test- used to
    • detect a specific antibody in a patient's serum. The known antigen is attached
    • to the wells of a microtiter plate. Dilutions of the suspected antibody are
    • added and, after washing, enzyme-labeled anti-antibody is added. A color change after the
    • substrate is added indicates the antibody was present.

    • ›Ex. the
    • ELISA test for HIV antibodies is indirect

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