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Five Classification of Bones
1. ____ bone: Bones are longer than they are wide, examples are humerus, radius, ulna, femur, tibia and fibula.
2. ____ bone: Small & cuboidal, contain multiple articulating surfaces, such as carpals and tarsals
3. ____ bone: Possess a broad, flat surface for muscle attachment or protection of underlying organs such sternum, ribs, scapula and certain skull bones
4. ____ bone: catch-all category for bones that don't fit in the other ones. Example are certain cranial bones, facial bones, vertebrae and the hyoid bone
5. ____ bone: Small, round bones that are embedded in certain tendons, often found in the hands and feet. Largest is the Patella (kneecap)
- 1. Long
- 2. Short
- 3. Flat
- 4. Irregular
- 5. Sesamoid
A bone used as a rod that is moved by use of a falcrum (joint) to be set in motion with two forces that must act on it; 1. Resistance (weight of body and/or an object) 2. Effort (muscular contraction) There are three Classifications.
What is a Lever?
Three Classifications of Levers
1. ____ ____ Lever: resembles a seesaw. The fulcrum (joint) is positioned between effort and resistance. Least common in the body. Example is cranium sitting on top of a vertebrae Force teeters the weight up and down on the Falcrum.
2. ____ ____ Lever: functions as would a wheel barrow. The fulcrum (joint) is at one end, the resistance is in the middle and the force is at the opposite end. Example is rising of the toes. (Fulcrum - wheel, Weight - container, Force - handles)
3. ____ ____ Lever: resembles sweeping with a broom. The fulcrum (joint) is at one end, Effort is located in the central portion and the resistance is at the opposite end. This is most common type of lever. Example is flexing the elbow. (Fulcrum - base, Force-shaft, Weight-bristles)
- 1. Class One
- 2. Class Two
- 3. Class Three
Also known as joints, are the meeting places for bones. Where joints are bones come together. Every bone in the human skeleton joins with at least one bone, except the Hyoid bone
Hold bones together through ligaments
Allows skeletal system to become flexible.
What are Articulations?
The three types of Articulations (joints)
1. ________ (fibrous joints) absent or extremely limited movement. Examples are those between skull bones and sutures of the cranium
2. ________ (cartilaginous joints) slightly movable joints, move apart only a few millimeters, such as tibiofibular joint
3. ________ (synovial joints) Freely movable joints, responsible for the movements of the body
- 1. Synarthroses
- 2. Amphiarthroses
- 3. Diarthroses
Structures of Synovial Joints
1. ___ ___ covers the epiphyses of articulating bones. Smooth & slippery, decreases friction & helps absorb shock when bone in joint move
2. ___ ___ forms a sleeve around the joint. Actually a continuation of periosteum of bones involved in joint. Outer layer is fibrous & form ligaments. Structures located within it;
A. Inner region is ___ ____ which is lined with _____ membrane (covers sheaths and bursae as well ). This membrane secretes _____ fluid, known as synovia, a lubricating fluid .
3. ___ ___ further stabilize the joint, ligaments are extension of bone to allow lightness, flexibility and added strength.
4. Other structures are the ______, collapsed saclike structure, flat with an interior lining of synovial membrane containing synnovial fluid. _____ _____ are similiar, but are tubular and surround long tendons and increase gluiding capacity.
- 1. Articular Cartilage
- 2. Joint Capsule
- A. Joint Cavity / Synovial / Synovial
- 3. Accessory Ligaments
- 4. Bursae / Synovial Sheaths
The Six Types of Synovial Joints
1. ____ joint (monoaxial) - movements limited to flexion & extension as in knees, elbows and interphalangeal joints. Posses one concave & one convex articular surface
2. ____ joint (monoaxial) - allows movement that is limited to rotation such as radial joints. Possess one conical surface & one depressed surface
3. ____ joint (biaxal) - resembles to saddles, possesses movements of flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, opposition and circumduction, but ROTATION is not permitted. Only one is Carpometacarpal joint of the thumb
4. ____ joint (biaxal) - essentially reduced ball & socket joint. Contain one oval convex surface & one concave surface, allowing flexion, extension, abduction, adduction but Rotation is not permitted.. Examples are joints between fingers.
5. __ __ __ joint (Triaxal) - permit all movements & offer the greatest range of motion. One articulate surface is rounded, fitting in cuplike cavity. Examples are hip & shoulders joints
6. ____ joint (Triaxal) - permit all movements but are limited to gliding. Both articular surfaces are nearly flat. Present in acromioclavicular & intertarsal joints.
- 1. Hinge
- 2. Pivot
- 3. Saddle
- 4. Ellipsoidal
- 5. Ball-and-Socket
- 6. Gliding
Actions of the Body
1. _____ - bends or decreases the angle of joint. Lateral can be a direction. Example is Elbow or Hip. / ______ - straightens or increases angle of a joint. Can be lateral or Hyper which is continuation beyond anatomical position.
2. _____ - medial (inward) rotation of forearm so that palm is turned downward. / ______ lateral (outward) rotation of forearm so that palm is turned upward.
3. _____ - elevation of medial edge of foot so that the sole is turned inward (or medially), soles with face each other. / ______ lateral edge of foot is turned outward (or laterally), sole will not face each other.
4. _____ - movement Away from median plane / _____ movement Toward the median plane. | ______ raising of lifting body part Superiorly / _____ lowering or dropping body part inferiorly.
5. _____ - flexing ankle dorsally so that toes move toward shin. / ___ ___ extension of ankle so that toes are pointing downward, increasing ankle anteriorly.
6. _____ -circular movement when bone moves around its own axis. Can move left, right, later, medila, upward and downward. / ________ movement of tip of thumb comes in contact with tip of digit on same hand.
7. _____ - movement backward or posteriorly / _____ - movement foward or anteriorly / _____ _____ side to side movement in transverse plane often used when discussing mandibular movements.
- 1. Flexion / Extension
- 2. Pronation / Supination
- 3. Inversion / Eversion
- 4. Abduction / Adduction | Elevation / Depression
- 5. Dorsiflexion / Plantar Flexion
- 6. Retraction / Protraction / Lateral Deviation
One of the actions of the body, this movement occurs when the distal end moves in a circle and the proximal end is relatively fixed; it can be described as cone-shaped range of motion, combines flexion, extension, adduction and abduction.
What is Circumduction?
1. ______ is the process of bones development, begins within the sixth and seventh week of embryonic life and continues throughout adulthood. There are two types:
2. ___ ___ involves bone formation from membranes and is found on roof and sides of skull, replace connective tissue with osseous connective tissue.
3. ___ ___ begins from cartilage and is found in bones of extremities, replace connective tissue with osseous connective tissue.
- 1. Ossification
- 2. Intramembranous Ossification
- 3. Intracartilaginous Ossification
Anatomy of the Long Bone (example Femur)
1. A typical long bone has two main regions, the ______ which is the long cylindrical shaft of the bone and the ______ which is the two ends of the bone and where the bones grows in length.
2. The ______ cavity is the hollow space within the shaft of the bone. Articular surfaces of the ends of bones are covered with a type of hyaline cartilage called _____ cartilage
3. ____ cells formed in the cavity can exit the bone & enter circulation through two types of canal systems; _____ canals (minute vascular canals that run longitudinally) and ____ canals (connect with the other canals, running horizontally)
4. A fibrous, dense, vascular tissue sheath, the ______ surrounds the shaft of the bone and is absent on the ends of the bones. It is known as the bones ____-____ system, containing vessels, nerves & bone-forming cells _______ for growth & healing.
5. ___ _____ is the tough membrane that interconnects select bones by attaching to their periosteum. Also provide muscle attachment. Another name for this structure is ____ membrane.
6. The region where the bones merge, or the ______ is where growth of the bone takes place. Contains a ___ plate in youth growth and a ____ line when the bone is mature and growth complete.
- 1. Diaphysis / Epiphyses
- 2. Medullary / Articular
- 3. Blood / Haversian / Volkmann's
- 4. Periosteum / Life-support / Osteoblasts
- 5. Interosseous Ligament / Interosseus
- 6. Metaphysis / Epiphyseal Plate / Epiphyseal Line
1. The two main regions of the Skeleton is the ____ skeleton with the center of the body, contains 80 bones including skull, Vertebral column, sternum and ribs
2. The other region of the Skeleton is the _____ skeleton, composed of the extremities arms, legs shoulder girdle and pelvic girdle.
3. Microscopic cells within skeletal system include ______ which are bone-forming cells found in periosteum, the _____ which break down bone tissue to maintain homeostasis or calcium & phosphates to repair bone, and the ______ which are mature bone-forming cells that soon become embedded in the bone's matrix.
4. Osseous tissue, one of the connective tissue of the skeleton, can be defined by density into two types; _____ bone and ____ bone.
5. Lighter of the two, ____ bone is laticelike network found in center of bone filled with red & yellow marrow where blood cells are made. The denser _____ bone consists of bone cells surrounded by dense material made of calcium & phosphate.
- 1. Axial
- 2. Appendicular
- 3. Osteoblasts / Osteoclasts / Osteocytes
- 4. Spongy / Compact
- 5. Spongy Bone / Compact Bone
What are the Seven Effects of Massage on Connective Tissues?
- 1. Reduces Keloid (Scar) formation
- 2. Decreases Adhesion formation
- 3. Releases fascial restrictions
- 4. Increases mineral retention in bone
- 5. Promotes fracture healing
- 6. Improves connective tissue healing
- 7. Reduces surface dimpling cellulite
The 5 Connective Tissue Types of the Skeletal System
- 1. Osseous Tissue
- 2. Cartilage
- 3. Ligaments
- 4. Periosteum
- 5. Bone Marrow
A condition where one side of the pelvis is higher than the other side in the horizontal plane. Can be termed into right and left
Right - Ilium drops to the right, left hip is hiked up
Left - Ilium drops to the left, right hip is hiked up
What is Obliquity?
Place on bones where muscles, tendon, and ligaments attach and where nerve and blood vessels pass. Also known as landmarks and are fairly easy to located beneath the skin.
What are Bony Markings?
The 6 Functions of the Skeletal System
1. Supports the body systems through a bony ________
2. _____ the body's organs
3. Provide movement by ______ through muscle attachments
4. Produces _____ cells in the red marrow (Hemopoiesis)
5. Stores fat in _____ bone marrow and releases it when needed
6. Stores vital ______ such as calcium, phosphate, calcium carbonate, phosphorus, magnesium and sodium
- 1. Framework
- 2. Protects
- 3. Leverage
- 4. Blood
- 5. Yellow
- 6. Minerals