W&I Test2 (Part10)
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Discribe Human Papilloma Virus (HPV).
This virus has many strains, some of these strains are sexually transmitted. Certain "high risk" are associated with cervical cancer. Causes genital warts.
What's the cure for Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)?
There is no cure for ______ ____ ____ but it is thought that the body often clears the virus.
Name two vaccines for Human Papilloma Virus (HPV).
These are both vaccines for what STI?
What's the difference between Gardasil and Cervarix as vaccinations for Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)?
1) Gardasil targets 4 strains of ____ responsible for 90% of genital warts and 70% of cervical cancers.
2) Cervarix protects against cervical cancer strains only.
Discribe Hepatitis B.
- This STD is often silent: asymptomatic – or fever, anorexia, N&V, fatigue, rash
- –Virus found in blood, saliva, sweat, tears, vaginal secretions, and semen.
Perinatal transmission of Hep B most often occurs in mothers who have acute hepatitis infection late in the ___ trimester, intrapartum, or early postpartum course.
Perinatal transmission of _______ ___ most often occurs in mothers who have acute hepatitis infection late in the 3rd trimester, intrapartum, or early postpartum course.
What is the treatment for Hep B?
No specific treatment – recovery is usually spontaneous in 3-16 weeks.
Hep B infections can lead to _____ or _____ cancer.
This STD can lead to cirrhosis or liver cancer.
How do yo screen for Hep B.
Screening by blood test – usually hepatitis B surface antigen.
What's the most effective means of preventing Hep B?
Vaccination is the most effective means of preventing ______ __?
Describe Hepititis C. (2)
- 1) Readily transmitted through exposure to blood
- •Less efficient via semen, saliva, or urine
- 2) Generally asymptomatic or with flu-like symptoms
This discribes what STD?
How would you test for Hep C
Confirmed by blood test – anti-C antibodies
What would you use to treat Hep C.
Treatment for ____ __ would be with Interferon-alpha or with ribavirin for 6-12 months.
What is a concern with Hep C and pregnancy.
Hepititis C crosses the placenta – 2-7% fetal transmission rate.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) transsmision primarily occures through the exchange of ___ ____.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) transsmision primarily occures through the exchange of body fluids.
How does HIV work.
This STD leads to severe depression of the immune system leaving the individual susceptible to illness from opportunistic infections.
Seroconversion of HIV typically occurs ___-___ weeks after exposure.
Seroconversion of ____ typically occurs 6-12 weeks after exposure.
How do you test for HIV?
Antibody testing for _____ initially done by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) with reactive screens confirmed by Western blot or immunofluorescence assay.
What is the treatment for HIV?
Therapy for ____ is intensive – usually multi-drug treatment regimen with many dangerous and unpleasant side effects.
Pregnancy (is/is not) encourged in HIV positive women?
Pregnancy is not encourged in ____ positive women
What are some transmission preventive measures to keep mothers from passing HIV to their babies. (3)
- 1) No breastfeeding
- 2) Treatment of antiretroviral triple therapy
- •Decreases rate to 2%
- 3) Cesarean birth (scheduled at 38 weeks)
These are preventive measures to keep mothers from passing ____ to their babies
What are some maternal risks with HIV and AIDS. (5)
- 1) Preterm labor
- 2) PROM
- 3) IUGR
- 4) Perinatal mortality
- 5) Postpartum endometritis
These are some maternal risks with ____ and _____.
Name some antepartum care for women concerning HIV and AIDS. (6)
- 1) HIV counseling and testing should be offered to all pregnant women
- 2) STI testing
- 3) Vaccination and immune status should be updated
- 4) Antiretroviral medications
- 5) Nutritional support and counseling
- 6) Identification and treatment of opportunistic infections
These are all antepartum care for women concerning ___ and ____.
What are some intrapatume care measures with HIV and AIDS? (3)
- 1) IV antiretrovirals
- 2) Extra efforts to decrease the neonate’s exposure to blood and secretions
- •Goal is to keep membranes intact
- 3) Avoid scalp electrode and pH sampling
These are all _______ care measures with HIV and AIDS.
What are some postpartum and newborn care measures for newborns of HIV positive mothers. (2)
- 1) Infant wiped free of all body fluids and bathed as soon as stable
- 2) Mother at increased risk for infections: UTIs, vaginitis, endometritis, poor wound healing
These are some postpartum and newborn care measures for newborns of ____ positive mothers.
What is a STI cause by a one celled protozoan with flagella called.
What are some symptoms of a Trichomoniasis infection. (5)
- 1) May be asymptomatic or
- 2) Copious malodorous discharge
- 3) Dysuria (painful urination)
- 4) Dyspareunia (painful intercourse) often present
- 5) Red “strawberry cervix” noted on exam
These are symptoms of what STI?
What is the treatment for a Trichomoniasis infection?
Single treatment with metronidazole (Flagyl) of patient and partners is the treatment for what STI?
Describe Bacterial Vaginosis (BV)
Excessive growth of anaerobes in the vagina related to decrease in normal lactobacilli which typically help to maintain an acidic environment.
What are the symptoms of Bacterial Vaginosis?
Symptoms of _____ _____ include are -malodorous thin, grayish-white discharge.
How would you confirm a diagnonis of Bacterial Vaginosis.
_____ _____ is confirmed by the appearance of bacteria-studded "clue cells" on a saline mount slide.
Discribe Candidal Vulvovaginitis (yeast infection).
Overgrowth of candida or other fungal species.
Symptoms of Candidal Vulvovaginitis (yeast infection). (3)
- 1) Itching
- 2) Redness
- 3) Inflammation
- 4) Often with a thick, whitish or greenich curd-like discharge.
These are symptoms of what kind of infection.
How would you treat an infection of Candidal Vulvovaginitis (yeast infection)?
Treatment with topical antifungals (OTC and prescription available) or single-dose oral antifungal - Diflucan
This is the treatment for what?
What are the TORCH infections
- T- Toxoplasmosis
- O- Other infections
- R- Rubells
- C- Cytomegalovirus
- H- Herpes simplex virus
What are the "other infections" in TORCH. (5)
- 1) Hepatitis B
- 2) Syphilis
- 3) Varicella-Zoster Virus
- 4) HIV
- 5) Parvovirus B19
These are the ______ agents in TORCH.
What are the comlications of Toxoplasmisis in pregnancy. (2)
- 1) Miscarriage likely with acute infection
- 2) Parasitemia with maternal acute infection
These are all comlications of ________ in pregnancy
What are some risk factors for Toxoplasmisis? (2)
- 1) Raw meat
- 2) Exposure to litter used by infected cats
- •Patient immune after first exposure
These are risk factors for infection with _________.
What are the symptoms of a Toxoplasmisis infection?
The symptoms of a ______ infection would be Flu-like infection. Lymphadenopathy
What are some maternal complications of Hepatitis A? (4)
- 1) Miscarriage/preterm birth/Intrauterine fetal demise
- 2) Maternal liver failure
- 3) Fetal anomalies/demise
- 4) Fetal or neonatal hepatitis
These would me some maternal complications of a ______ __ infection.
Risk for infection from Hep A would be what?
Droplet or hand contact (contaminated feces).
What can be given prophylacticaly or if contact is made with Hep A?
Immunoglobulin can be given prophylacticaly or if contact is made with what infectous agent.
What are some signs and symptoms of a Hep A infection? (3)
- 1) Fever
- 2) Malaise
- 3) Abdominal discomfort
These are all signs and symptoms of a ____ __ infection.
When does an infection of Hep B pass from mother to baby.
Infection occures during birth, though the mothers contaminated blood or body fluids.
What are some signs and syptoms of a Hep B infection. (10)
- 1) Fever
- 2) Rash
- 3) Arthralgia
- 4) Anorexia
- 5) Dyspepsia
- 6) Abdominal pain
- 7) Arching
- 8) Malaise
- 9) Jaundice
- 10) Enlarged liver
These are some signs and syptoms of a ______ __ infection.
What is the treatment for Hep B during pregnancy?
- 1) Maternal vaccination during pregnancy OK
- 2) Immunoglobulin also given if exposure happens
These are some treatments for _____ __ infections during pregnancy
What are some commplications of Rubella (German measles) during pregnancy?
- 1) Miscarriage
- 2) Malformations of the heart, eyes, ears, or brain if exposed during first 2 months
- 3) After 4 months: systemic infection, hepatosplenomegaly, IUGR, rash
These are all commplications of _______ during pregnancy
What are some signs and symptoms of a Rubella infection? (4)
- 1) Rash
- 2) Fever
- 3) Mild syptoms
- 4) Suboccipital lymph nodes
These are some signs and symptoms of a _____ infection
What are some commplications of Varicell (Chicken pox) during pregnancy?
- 1) Small risk of birth defects if acquired in 1st 20 weeks of gestation
- 2) If exposed at time of delivery – risk of Varicella pneumonia for infant
Although there are no documented adverse effects, what two vaccinations would you not give during pregnancy?
- 1) Rubella (German measles)
- 2) Varicella (Chicken pox)
What are some complications of Parvovirus (Fifth Disease, Slap Cheek Fever) during pregnancy?
Occasionally severe anemia, miscarriage (usually if contracted in 1st 20 weeks)
These are complications of what kind of infection during pregnancy?
Group B Strep can cause what in pregnancy? (3)
Chorioamniotis, neonatal sepsis/meningitis can be caused by what in pregnancy?
Listeriosis can cause what in pregnancy? (3)
- 1) Misscarriage
- 2) Preterm delivery
- 3) Fetal/newborn seizures, meningitis
These are things that can be caused by _______ in pregnancy?
How would a mother become infected with Listeriosis.
A mother could become infected with _______ if she came into contact with contaminated packaged meats, poultry, seafood; veggies grown in contaminated soil; unpasteurized dairy.
Inflammation of the fallopian tubes often associated with gonorrhea or chlamydia.
Inflammation of the uterus often associated with gonorrhea or chlamydia.
This is inflammation of the amnion, usually secondary to bacterial infection.
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