INT PHYS EXAM2 tutorial questions

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  1. Which type of chemical messenger, when released, binds to receptors on the cell that released the chemical messenger?
  2. Which type of chemical messenger, when released, binds to receptors on a neighboring cell?
  3. Where is a systemic hormone released?
    into the blood stream
  4. What system does a cytokine contribute to?
    Immune - cytokines are active in the immune response
  5. Neurohormones are released into the _______ from _______
    blood ; interneurons
  6. Quick fact : Steroid hormones usually have something to do with _______
    the nucleus
  7. The opening or closing of fast ligand-gated channels describes a _____ hormone
  8. The activation of an enzyme-linked receptor describes a ____ hormone
  9. The ______of the cAMP second messenger system describes a peptide hormone
  10. Altering the transcription of mRNA describes what type of hormone?
    a steroid hormone (estrogen)
  11. Where is the Pars tuberalis located and what hormone(s) does it produce?
    located in the pituitary stock ; does not produce hormones
  12. What 6 hormones are produced by the Pars distalis of the pituitary?
    GH, LH, FSH, prolactin, ACTH, TSH
  13. What 2 hormones are produced by the Pars nervosa of the pituitary?
    vasopressin and oxytocin
  14. What is the median eminence responsible for in the pituitary?
    capillary action
  15. What hormone is produced by the Pars intermedia of the pituitary?
    melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
  16. The rate limiting enzyme of melatonin synthesis is _____
  17. Hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase is part of the second step of ______ synthesis
  18. Sporadic melatonin secretion is most likely due to _____
    sporadic light cues
  19. If melatonin secretion is inhibited there is ______ light
    constant light
  20. The SCN runs on a _____ hour clock
    25 hr
  21. In constant darkness, the SCN is ______
  22. In constant darkness for several days, melatonin secretion shows a ________
    circadian rhythm - (a 25hr circadian rhythm due to the SCN)
  23. If you remove the ____ , then melatonin is not produced but the SCN can still receive significant light cues
  24. No PVN = ___________
    No PVN = no melatonin from the pineal gland
  25. Melatonin is slightly produced by the ____ and ____ . This melatonin is _____ entrained by the SCN.
    GI and eye retina ; still entrained
  26. If the optic tract is ablated, then melatonin production is ______
  27. No SCN = ______________
    No SCN = no circadian rhythm
  28. The SCN is responsible for _________
    driving circadian rhythm
  29. The PVN is responsible for _________
    regulating melatonin production
  30. The epidydimal ducts are responsible for __________
    the maturation of sperm
  31. What is the chorionic villi?
    forms the membrane between the mother and fetus
  32. In females, the Mullerian ducts ______ as a result of apoptosis
  33. What are the seminiferous ducts responsible for?
    sperm generation
  34. In females, the Wolffian ducts ____ as a result of apoptosis
  35. In males, androgens (testosterone) are made by _______ cells
  36. In females, _____ cells have receptors for LH and produce androgens
  37. In females, _________ stimulates granulosa cells to convert _____ to ______
    FSH ; androgens to estradiol
  38. Estrogen production in ovarian follicles involves ________
    both thecal and granulosa cells
  39. Estrogen production is mainly controlled by what 2 hormones?
    LH and FSH
  40. What enzyme converts testosterone to DHT?
  41. Estrogen production is ________ just prior to ovulation
  42. Estrogen production in ovarian follicles requires the synthesis of androgens in ____ cells
  43. Aromatase and 5alpha-reductase act on what hormone?
  44. FSH and LH are secreted by what major cell?
    the gonadotrope

    Gonadotropes are endocrine cells in the anterior pituitary that produce the gonadotropins, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) and is regulated by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus.
  45. Collagenase os secreted by the ______ follicle
  46. Ghrelin is related to what sensation?
  47. What does somatostatin do?
    inhibits GH
  48. What is the major role of calcitonin?
    it inhibits calcium release from bone to blood
  49. ______ was recently discovered and has been implicated in reproduction
  50. The SRY gene produces __________ and causes _____ development
    testes determining factor ; testicular
  51. The Wolfian duct develops in ________ while the Mullerian duct develops in _________
    • Wolffian = males
    • Mullerian = females
  52. Hashimoto's is a autoimmune disease associated with ________
  53. Adduson's disease is associated with __________
    adrenal deficiency
  54. Cushing's disease is often associated with high _____
  55. Graves' disease is due to __________
  56. Surgical removal of the adrenals often leads to _____ disease
  57. T/F - Thyroid hormones are water soluble, which explains why they pass through cell membranes easily
  58. Tri-iodothyronine (T3) has a strong ______ effect on TRH secretion
  59. _______ are due to iodine deficiency, increased iodine demand, or _______ deficiency
    Goiters ; selenium
  60. T/F - Cortisol levels remain constant throughout the day
  61. Excess ______ causes skin discoloration in Addison's disease
  62. Iodide is converted to iodine by the activity of __________
    thyroid peroxidase (TPO)
  63. Iodine is actively exchanged with ____ at the luminal surface of the follicular cell
  64. Thyroxine (T4) is synthesized in _______ amounts than tri-iodothyronine (T3)
  65. T3 is (more/less) active than T4
  66. _______ is an essential element involved in thyroid hormone metabolism
  67. Cortisol has an affinity for the aldosterone receptor (more/less/equal) to that of aldosterone
    EQUAL - cortisol competes with aldosterone
  68. Aldosterone is secreted by the ____ layer of the adrenals
    zona glomerulosa (outer)
  69. Cortisol is secreted by the ____ layer of the adrenals
    zona fasciculata (middle)
  70. Androgen is secreted by the ____ layer of the adrenals
    zona reticularis (inner)
  71. The middle layer of the adrenals is called the zona _______
  72. The outer layer of the adrenals is called the zona ____
  73. The inner layer of the adrenals is called the zona ______
  74. Angiotensinogen is converted to angiotensin by _____
  75. Aromatase converts ______ into _______
    testosterone into estrogen
  76. Angiotensin-I is converted to Angiotensin-II by ________
    angiotensin-converting enzyme
  77. __________ is responsible for the reuptake of sodium and the secretion of potassium
  78. What ion does parathyroid hormone help regulate?
  79. Excess aldosterone secretion will lead to elevated plasma levels of ______
  80. What happens if TPO is inhibited?
    iodide is not converted to iodine
  81. Dexamethasone (incr/decr) ACTH levels
  82. _________ is a medical glucocorticoid more potent than cortisol
  83. Excess cortisol can lead to what disease?
  84. Gluconeogenesis is the formation of glucose from oxaloacetate via __________
    phosphenol pyruvate
  85. Triglycerides are formed by ________ synthesis from glucose
    de novo
  86. Glycolysis is the metabolism of __________ to pyruvate
  87. Glycogenolysis is stimulated by _________
  88. GLUT2 facilitates glucose uptake in the ______
  89. GLUT4 facilitates glucose uptake in the __________
  90. After insulin binds to its receptors, _______ formation is stimulated
  91. When insulin binds to a cell receptor, __________ transporters move to the cell membrane
  92. Entry of amino acids into the cell is facilitated when sinsulin binds to _________
    its cell receptor
  93. Lipogenesis is ________by insulin
  94. _______ is released together with its cleaved C peptide
  95. Insulin is released in a _______ manner in response to a glucose infusion
  96. What is secreated in response to the depolarization of beta cells and the opening of voltage-gated calcium channels?
  97. Vitamin D is a _________ hormone
  98. Vitamin D is hydroxylated into its potent form in the _________
  99. FSH goes to the ______ cells in males while LH goes to the ______ cells for negative feedback
    Sertoli (anterior pituitary)

    Leydig (anterior pituitary & hypothalamus)
  100. Vitamin D is hydroxylated in what 2 organs of the body?
    liver and kidney
  101. Calcium may be taken up from the lumen of the gut by ______
  102. All processes of calcium absorption require _________
    calcium-binding proteins
  103. Synthesis of calcium-binding proteins is stimulated by _______
    Vitamin D
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INT PHYS EXAM2 tutorial questions
INT PHYS EXAM2 tutorial questions
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