refers to behaviors, attitudes, beliefs, and values that culture deems appropriate for males and females
refers to how a person accepts the culture’s prescribed gender roles; how an individual adapts the expected gender to role to his or her identity; the degree to which an individual sees herself or himself as feminine or masculine
- Gender stereotypes: encompass the cultural beliefs about ‘what’ gender roles are and ‘how’ these role should be enacted. It tends to reflect culture’s belief
- about the ways in which men and women behave
refers to the specific messages and practices we receive from our culture concerning the nature of being a male or a female, of being female or masculine
Gender Differences Hypothesis
: holds that males and females are similar on most, but not all, psychological variables (minimal)--motor performacnes, sexuality, phy agressiveness
Sociobiology or the biosocial theory:
both biology and society have affect, bio differences (on average), social influences can counteract
Social Learning Theory:
behavior is learned, children learn gender roles taughty by parents, observe and imitate gender, parent reward/punish gender
Symbolic Interaction theory
: Masculinity is socially/culturally constructed set of beliefs, values, and opinions that shape manly character or manliness. How man should act/behave
Femininity refers to qualities, behaviors, and attitudes that are deemed by a particular culture to be ideally appropriate for girls and women.
Cross Cultural view on gender
: The view of men as instrumental and women as expressive was based on images of white, middle-class heterosexuals.