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Exchange and Resourse Theories
Humans seek rewards and avoid punishments
ability to obtain profits in a relationship is contingent on the ability to provide others with rewards, regulated by norms of reciprocity and fairness.
Blau, social rewards:
- Rewards: pleasures,satisfactions, and gratifications the person enjoys.
- Resources: any commodity,material or symbolic, that can be transmitted through interpersonal behavior and gives one person the capacity to reward another.
- Costs: punishments experienced or rewards foregone as a result of engaging in one behavior or course of action rather than another.
Personal attraction, Social acceptance, social approval, instrumental services, repsect/prestige, complia/power
love, status, services, goods, information, money
investments, direct, opportunity
: evaluation of the outcomes (equal to rewards obtained minus the costs incurred)
avail in a relationship.
comparison level (CL):
explain how experiences and expectations help to evaluate outcomes
Comparison level for alternatives:
why ind stay or leave in a relationship, the lowest level of outcome a person will accept from a relationship in light of available alternatives, supjective, dependence
the degree to which a person believes that they are subject to or reliant on the other for relationship outcomes.
are governed by orientations and rules that clarify what’s acceptable and appropriate behavior.
- Normative orientations: the societal views on acceptable and appropriate behavior in relationships.
- Norms of fairness: the degree of proportionality
- expected in a relationship.
Family Systems Theory
the whole is greater than the sum of its parts
- Self-reflexivity: the ability to make themselves and
- their own behavior the object of examination and the target of explanation.
- Self-monitoring: cybernetic reflexivity
- First-order change: change at the individual level
- without changing the structure/system
- Second-order change: change at the system level; the entire system is reorganized into new transactional patterns
- Circumplex model: integrates family systems theoretical concepts into a systematic model
- family cohesion: emotional bonding toward one another (emotional bonding, degree of individiual autonomy) 4level (disengaged, separated, connected, enmeshed)
- Family flexibility: amount of change in response to stress 4levels (rigid, structured, flexible, chaotic)
- Family Communication: facilitating dimension (listening, speaking, self-disclosure, clarity)
Tuskegee Syphilis Study: African American denied treatment for 40years.
Belmont Report: 1979, guidelines for research studies to have Inst Review Board
Guiding principles: respect for persons (autonomous agents, entitled to protection, informed concent), beneficence (charity, do no harm) , justice (benefits)
IRB: review, resource for compliance, protection, monitor
Survey: (easy, cheap, more participants) (literal meaning, pragmatic meaning) closed ended, open-ended
Experimental Designs: deterministic, manipulating ind variable (control, can determine causality)
Observational design: complete participant (undercover, w/o), complete observer (astronomical, w/o knowledge), participant oberver (w/knowledge, inform
Unobtrusive (nonreactive research): artifacts, existing statistics, content analysis
Gender and Socialization
refers to behaviors, attitudes, beliefs, and values that culture deems appropriate for males and females
refers to how a person accepts the culture’s prescribed gender roles; how an individual adapts the expected gender to role to his or her identity; the degree to which an individual sees herself or himself as feminine or masculine
- Gender stereotypes: encompass the cultural beliefs about ‘what’ gender roles are and ‘how’ these role should be enacted. It tends to reflect culture’s belief
- about the ways in which men and women behave
refers to the specific messages and practices we receive from our culture concerning the nature of being a male or a female, of being female or masculine
Gender Differences Hypothesis
: holds that males and females are similar on most, but not all, psychological variables (minimal)--motor performacnes, sexuality, phy agressiveness
Sociobiology or the biosocial theory:
both biology and society have affect, bio differences (on average), social influences can counteract
Social Learning Theory:
behavior is learned, children learn gender roles taughty by parents, observe and imitate gender, parent reward/punish gender
Symbolic Interaction theory
: Masculinity is socially/culturally constructed set of beliefs, values, and opinions that shape manly character or manliness. How man should act/behave
Femininity refers to qualities, behaviors, and attitudes that are deemed by a particular culture to be ideally appropriate for girls and women.
Cross Cultural view on gender
: The view of men as instrumental and women as expressive was based on images of white, middle-class heterosexuals.
Reiss wheel theory of love
- Psychologist Fehr believed that each of us acquires a model in our own families of origin of what love is and what it is not.
- Central features: trust, care, honesty, friendship, respect, desire for well-being, loyalty, committment, accepting, support, disire company, consideration/interest
: rapport, self-revelaiton, mutual dependency, personal need fulfillment
Sternberg, triagle theory of love
: nonlove, empty love, liking, infatuated love, compationate, fatuous, romantic, consummate
Lee Love Styles:
eros (erotic, intense), storge (companionate, affection), pragma (practical, assets/liabiltities), agape (altruistic, sascrifice), ludus (fun), mania (crazy)
3things love isnt:
martyring (self-sacrifice), manipulating (control), limerence (obsession)