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  1. Exchange and Resourse Theories
    Humans seek rewards and avoid punishments

    Social Exchange: ability to obtain profits in a relationship is contingent on the ability to provide others with rewards, regulated by norms of reciprocity and fairness.

    • Rewards: pleasures,satisfactions, and gratifications the person enjoys.
    • Resources: any commodity,material or symbolic, that can be transmitted through interpersonal behavior and gives one person the capacity to reward another.
    • Costs: punishments experienced or rewards foregone as a result of engaging in one behavior or course of action rather than another.

    Blau, social rewards: Personal attraction, Social acceptance, social approval, instrumental services, repsect/prestige, complia/power

    Foa, resources: love, status, services, goods, information, money

    Blau, costs: investments, direct, opportunity

    Satisfaction: evaluation of the outcomes (equal to rewards obtained minus the costs incurred) avail in a relationship.

    comparison level (CL): explain how experiences and expectations help to evaluate outcomes

    Comparison level for alternatives: why ind stay or leave in a relationship, the lowest level of outcome a person will accept from a relationship in light of available alternatives, supjective, dependence

    Dependence: the degree to which a person believes that they are subject to or reliant on the other for relationship outcomes.

    Exchange relationships are governed by orientations and rules that clarify what’s acceptable and appropriate behavior.

    • Normative orientations: the societal views on acceptable and appropriate behavior in relationships.
    • Norms of fairness: the degree of proportionality
    • expected in a relationship.
  2. Family Systems Theory
    Holism: the whole is greater than the sum of its parts

    • Self-reflexivity: the ability to make themselves and
    • their own behavior the object of examination and the target of explanation.
    • Self-monitoring: cybernetic reflexivity

    • First-order change: change at the individual level
    • without changing the structure/system
    • Second-order change: change at the system level; the entire system is reorganized into new transactional patterns

    • Circumplex model: integrates family systems theoretical concepts into a systematic model
    • 3dimensions:
    • family cohesion: emotional bonding toward one another (emotional bonding, degree of individiual autonomy) 4level (disengaged, separated, connected, enmeshed)
    • Family flexibility: amount of change in response to stress 4levels (rigid, structured, flexible, chaotic)
    • Family Communication: facilitating dimension (listening, speaking, self-disclosure, clarity)
  3. Research Ethics
    Tuskegee Syphilis Study: African American denied treatment for 40years.

    Belmont Report: 1979, guidelines for research studies to have Inst Review Board

    Guiding principles: respect for persons (autonomous agents, entitled to protection, informed concent), beneficence (charity, do no harm) , justice (benefits)

    IRB: review, resource for compliance, protection, monitor
  4. Research Methods
    Survey: (easy, cheap, more participants) (literal meaning, pragmatic meaning) closed ended, open-ended

    Experimental Designs: deterministic, manipulating ind variable (control, can determine causality)

    Observational design: complete participant (undercover, w/o), complete observer (astronomical, w/o knowledge), participant oberver (w/knowledge, inform

    Unobtrusive (nonreactive research): artifacts, existing statistics, content analysis
  5. Gender and Socialization
    Gender role: refers to behaviors, attitudes, beliefs, and values that culture deems appropriate for males and females

    Gender identity: refers to how a person accepts the culture’s prescribed gender roles; how an individual adapts the expected gender to role to his or her identity; the degree to which an individual sees herself or himself as feminine or masculine

    • Gender stereotypes: encompass the cultural beliefs about ‘what’ gender roles are and ‘how’ these role should be enacted. It tends to reflect culture’s belief
    • about the ways in which men and women behave

    Gender socialization: refers to the specific messages and practices we receive from our culture concerning the nature of being a male or a female, of being female or masculine

    Gender Differences Hypothesis: holds that males and females are similar on most, but not all, psychological variables (minimal)--motor performacnes, sexuality, phy agressiveness

    Sociobiology or the biosocial theory: both biology and society have affect, bio differences (on average), social influences can counteract

    Social Learning Theory: behavior is learned, children learn gender roles taughty by parents, observe and imitate gender, parent reward/punish gender

    Symbolic Interaction theory: —Masculinity is socially/culturally constructed set of beliefs, values, and opinions that shape manly character or manliness. How man should act/behave

    —Femininity refers to qualities, behaviors, and attitudes that are deemed by a particular culture to be ideally appropriate for girls and women.

    Cross Cultural view on gender: —The view of men as instrumental and women as expressive was based on images of white, middle-class heterosexuals.
  6. Loving Relationships
    • Psychologist Fehr believed that each of us acquires a model in our own families of origin of what love is and what it is not.
    • Central features: trust, care, honesty, friendship, respect, desire for well-being, loyalty, committment, accepting, support, disire company, consideration/interest

    Reiss wheel theory of love: rapport, self-revelaiton, mutual dependency, personal need fulfillment

    Sternberg, triagle theory of love: nonlove, empty love, liking, infatuated love, compationate, fatuous, romantic, consummate

    Lee Love Styles: eros (erotic, intense), storge (companionate, affection), pragma (practical, assets/liabiltities), agape (altruistic, sascrifice), ludus (fun), mania (crazy)

    3things love isnt: martyring (self-sacrifice), manipulating (control), limerence (obsession)
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exam 2
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