Person Center Therapy

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Person Center Therapy
2011-11-01 15:06:39
PCT outline

Dr Muro's Theories Class
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  1. Who created Person Centered Therapy
    Carl Rogers

    “I speak as a person, from a context of personal learnings.”
  2. A few important notes about Carl
    Rogers had a desire to help people grow.

    His personality theory can be seen as a way to outline personal growth toward becoming more fully functioning

    He was determined to improve relationships between people—all people.
  3. Nature of Humans: Structure
    • From birth, we experience reality in terms of internal and external experiences; therefore, experience is our reality
    • Most experiences—are in our awareness

    Some experiences are ignored

    Some experiences are blocked (subceived)

    nWe are born with the ability to symbolize experiences in our awareness
  4. Subception
    This is experience that has been denied conscious representation.

    This is when you experience something, yet feel uneasy and initially, you do not know why.
  5. Nature of Humans: Structure
    We need to grow.

    We need to heal when injured.

    We need to develop our full potential.

    We are forward moving



    We are trustworthy
  6. Nature of Humans:Function
    However, we can become alienated from the self-actualizing tendency.

    However, the only way to destroy the self actualizing tendency is to destroy the person.

    nThe actualizing tendency interacts with perception (remember, from before) to gain the Organismic Valuing Process—important later in healthy functioning.

    nThis is where the organism perceives something, and then organizes it in terms of how well it actualizes the organism.

    nAn object either fulfills a need, is unrelated to a need, or thwarts the fulfillment of a need.
  7. This OVP is characterized by an
    Internalized Locus of Evaluation

  8. the actualizing tendency is…
  9. The drive, the reaching, the stretching, to be a fully functioning person!
  10. Role of the environment
    Children, as they grow, look for pleasantness and unpleasantness

    • Differentiation is made –hey, I like this! Or hey, I do not like th
    • If parents interfere with the process of differentiation, children can have a difficult time in developing organismic sensing—in other words, they do not trust their own experiences.
    • Child being forced to eat when not hungry; or asking for some food when hungry, and parents saying you’re not, you just ate…
  11. Self Regard
    Perceptions of positive regard received from others have a direct impact on own self-regard

    If you feel valued by important people, then they develop self regard

    Children also feel valued when they can help others

    Experience of satisfaction from being there for other people
  12. Conditions of Worth
    If you do not listen to your own values and beliefs, but listen to others, operate out of conditions of worth and will feel anxious

    • If children are in conflict with others and do not feel valued, they do not develop a sense of self-worth or self-regard
    • Individuals experience conditions of worth.
    • Evaluate own experience based on the values of others
    • Limits development
    • To gain positive conditional regard, discount own beliefs
    • These are psychological representations of “what I must experience to be worthwhile.” These conditions ultimately form the Ideal Self that is inevitably different.
  13. Effects of Condtions of Worth
    May feel lost and alienated from self

    May create rigid ideas and perceptions that are defenses against rejection

    Need to always please others

    Values of one group are incongruent with self values


    nPositive Regard from Others





  15. Conditions of Worth

    Agree to dissatisfying experience

    Deny satisfying experience

    So, conditions of worth are based on being accepted if you….(insert something that you do not want to do, but do it anyway)
  16. Maladaptive Behavior
    development of maladaptive behavior arises out of an incongruity between the self and the organism’s experience

    • Sometimes behavior will occur as a result of the organismic valuing process (Good
    • Sometimes behavior will occur as a result of conditions of worth (not so good)

    The greater the incongruence between an individual’s experience and self-concept, the more disorganized behavior will be.
  17. Adaptive Behavior

    OVP—helping us be all that we can be

    Positive, huh?
    The closer the ideal, real and perceived selves are overlapping, then:

    Congruent! Adaptive!
  19. self concept and the organismic experience
    do not relate.

    When the person alters the self-concept to bring it in close alignment with the real self, a state of incongruence is created—
  20. So, how do we get there? (How Change Occurs)
    Rogers believed that there must be unconditional positive regard from some others so that a person’s self-regard can be increased.

    Rogers emphasized congruence, the process of the therapist listening to and accurately experiencing and being aware of the communication of another person.
  21. So, the client is “changed” when
    • S/he becomes fully functioning—allowing themselves to feel and be aware and accept all of their experiences—and to define the experience through their own phenomenological view of the world!
    • There is an inner freedom to make decisions

    Responsibility for their own lives

    They become aware of social responsibilities

    They communicate empathetically—understanding the needs of others.
  22. So, the client is “changed” when
  23. We cannot change, we cannot move away from what we are, until we thoroughly accept what we are.”
  24. Conditions necessary for change
    Psychological contact

    • Incongruence
    • Congruence and genuineness

    Unconditional Positive Regard


    Perception of empathy and acceptance
  25. Role of the client:
    • Experience responsibility

    Experience the therapist

    Experience the exploration------------à

    Experience the self

    Experience the change!
  26. Role of the client:
    It is the client who knows what hurts, what direction to go, what problems are crucial, what experiences are deeply buried.”
  27. Capacity for change:
    Good! As long as the six necessary and sufficient conditions are met.

    The more they share their fears, anxiety and shame in the presence of another who is genuinely caring for them, the more fully will they experience life.
  28. Resistance
    Therapist does not meet core conditions

    Therapist is not accurate in reflections

    Client is unable to handle overwhelming feelings
  29. Role of the counselor:
    • Meet unconditional Positive Regard
    • Congruent/Genuine
    • Empathy!
    • Listen
    • Listen
    • Listen
    • Listen
    • Listen
    • Listen
    • Be yourself, accept yourself, permit self to understand another
    • open
    • Accept other person
    • more open less likely to rush in and fix
    • turst own experience
    • evaluations not a guide
    • Eperience Authority
    • Most personal most general
    • Life is flowing changing nothing is fixed
  30. Goals of Counseling:
    Goals come from client, not therapist

    Understanding the self

    To be the self that one truly is

    Counselor develops a therapeutic atmosphere that promotes the goals
  31. Relationship with the client:





    Listener, no suggestions

    “It (psychotherapy) is about the uniqueness of the relationship each therapist forms with each client, and equally about the common elements which we discover in all these relationships.”
  32. Specific Techniques
    Reflection of Content

    Reflection of Feeling

    Reflection of Meaning

    Reflection of Discrepancy