AP Biology Chapter 4 Carbon Chemestry

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AP Biology Chapter 4 Carbon Chemestry
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2011-11-01 17:43:56
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AP Biology Chapter Carbon Chemestry
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AP Biology Chapter 4 Carbon Chemestry
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  1. Hybridization
  2. Hydrogen-Carbon
    hydrocarbon
  3. (prefixes) 1 carbon
    meth- or form-
  4. (prefixes) 2 carbon
    Eth or Acet
  5. (prefixes) 3 Carbon
    pro or glycer
  6. (prefixes) 4 carbons
    butyl
  7. (prefixes) 5 carbons
    pentyl
  8. (prefixes) 6
    hexyl
  9. Hydride/hydryl
    • -H
    • all organic molecules CH4
  10. Hydroxyl
    • -OH
    • Alcohols, diols
    • suffix -ol CH3OH
  11. Carbonyl
    • =O
    • aldehydes terminal
    • (suffix -al)
    • Keytones and Aldenhydes
  12. Carboxyl
    • -C=OOH
    • Always terminal
    • Acids
    • Suffix -oic
    • always acidic
  13. Amine
    • -NH2
    • 3 types
    • -NH2 = primary

    • -NH- =
    • secondary
    • -N- = tertiary
    • Amino Acids, nitrogen bases
  14. Sulfhydryl
    • q-SH
    • q2 types
    • -SH = primary
    • -S- = secondary
    • Amino acids
    • Suffix - -thiol
  15. Phosphate
    q-H2PO4 (-O-PO3=)

    • qATP, PGAL,
    • glucose-6-phosphate
  16. Functional Groups of Hydrogen
    • Methyl - CH3
    • Ethyl -CH2CH3
    • Propyl -CH2CH2CH3
  17. Amide
    • O H
    • || |
    • HC - NH
  18. Ester
    • O
    • ||
    • - C – O-
  19. Ether
    -C – O – C-
  20. Isomers
    • same molecular
    • formula
    • different
    • structural formula
    • differing
    • properties (emergent)
  21. different Classes of Isomers
    • structural
    • sterioisomers
  22. 3 kinds of Structural Isomers
    • Chain or
    • skeletal isomerism
    • 2-methylpentane
    • vs. 3-methylpentane
    • Positional
    • isomerism
    • change in
    • position of functional group
    • Functional
    • group isomerism
    • change of
    • functional group to another form
  23. Geometric sterioisomers
    • qnon-rotation
    • around double or triple bond
  24. Chiral isomers
    • chiral C = carbon
    • with 4 different functional groups
  25. Enantiomers
    qenantiomers – non-superimposable

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