Biology - Cell diversity

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  1. Tissue
    Group of similar cells that are modified to carry out the same function
  2. Plant Tissues
    • 4 main types
    • -Dermal
    • -Vascular
    • -Ground
    • -Meristematic

    • Dermal Tissue
    • Single layer of cells that surrounds the different parts of the plant
    • Eg. Epidermis
    • Location: Skin on plant – Leaves, stems and roots
    • Description: Living rectangular cells
    • Function: Protect the plant & prevent water loss

    • Vascular Tissue
    • Transports material
    • Xylem
    • Description: Hollow tubes that run from roots to leaves
    • Function: Transport water & dissolved minerals. Support woody plants
    • Phloem
    • Description: Tube-like structures found in leaves, stems & roots
    • Function: Transports food around the plant
  3. Animal Tissue
    • 4 main types
    • -Epithelial
    • -Nervous
    • -Muscular
    • -Connective

    • Connective Tissue
    • Description: Consists of a number of cells spread out in a matrix that is produced by connective cells
    • Example: Blood – white cells, red cells & platelets

    • Nervous Tissue
    • Description: Composed of nerve cells called neurons
    • Function: Carry electrical impulses between brain & spinal cord
  4. Tissue culture
    • Tissue culture: the growth of cells in or on a sterile nutrient medium outside an organism
    • Outside the body ‘in vitro’
    • Inside the body ‘in vivo’

    • Applications of Tissue Culture
    • Plant breeding
    • Micro propagation: growth of large numbers of plants from small plant pieces
    • Benefits: Genetically identical plants, inexpensive

    • Cancer Research
    • Cancer cells produce special antigens that are not produced by any other normal body cells. It is no possible to produce special antibodies (MABs) that will react with the antigens on cancer cells
    • Benefits: Tell if cell is cancerous
    • Used to treat cancer
  5. Organs
    Organ: A structure composed of a number of tissues that work together to carry out one or more functions

    • Plant Organ
    • Leaf
    • -Contains dermal tissue, vascular tissue & ground tissue

    • Animal Organ
    • Heart
    • -Consists of cardiac tissue, a membrane, blood & numerous blood vessels
  6. Organ Systems
    Organ System: Consists of a number of organs working together to carry out one or more functions

    • Animal Organ Systems
    • Circulatory System – heart, blood vessels & blood Digestive System – Oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine & anus
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Biology - Cell diversity
2011-11-01 22:30:50

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