BIOL 223 Chapter 10-4

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christophertkennedy
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113766
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BIOL 223 Chapter 10-4
Updated:
2011-11-01 18:59:21
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anatomy physiology muscular system
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Study Cards for Chapter 10 BIOL 223 CSN
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  1. The contractile state of resting muscle is known as:
    muscle tone
  2. What condition is characterized by low muscle tone and can lead to flaccid paralysis?
    hypotonia
  3. What condition is characterized by too much muscle tone and can lead to spastic paralysis?
    hypertonia
  4. A muscle contraction with no change in length is considered to be an _______ contraction.
    isometric
  5. An isotonic contraction in which the amount of tension is less than the load is an:
    eccentric contraction
  6. An isotonic contraction in which the amount of tension is greater than the load is an:
    concentric contraction
  7. Which type of isotonic contraction occurs when you are carrying a heavy load and your muscles lengthen as they contract?
    eccentric contraction
  8. True or False: ATP can be stored in muscle tissue.
    False - ATP cannot be stored in the body and is therefore an immediate energy source
  9. ADP + Creatine Phosphate produces:
    ATP + Creatine
  10. How is creatine removed from the body?
    expelled in urine
  11. How does aerobic respiration generate ATP?
    by processing glucose, and other nutrients, through the krebs cycle and electron transport chain
  12. How does anaerobic fermentation produce ATP.
    by fermenting pyruvic acid
  13. What by-products are produced during anaerobic fermentation?
    lactic acid
  14. How do we get rid of the by-products of anaerobic fermentation?
    • flushing it out with water
    • the Cori cycle converts it back to pyruvate
  15. List the three types of muscle fiber discussed in class.
    • slow oxidative
    • fast oxidative glycolytic
    • fast glycolytic
  16. Which type of muscle fiber is "white?"
    fast glycolytic
  17. Which muscle fibers have the most myoglobin and mitochondria?
    • slow oxidative
    • fast oxidative glycolytic
  18. True or False: Human muscles have both slow and fast fibers in varying amounts but usually more of one than the other.
    True
  19. What is the primary difference between "multiunit" smooth muscle and "visceral" smooth muscle?
    with multiunit smooth muscle, each fiber has it's own innervation by a neuron branch
  20. How are the noninnervated fibers controlled in visceral smooth muscle?
    through gap junctions
  21. From what two places do calcium ions come from in smooth muscle contractions?
    • sarcoplasmic reticulum
    • extracellular fluid
  22. What do calcium ions bind to in a smooth muscle contraction?
    calmodulin proteins
  23. What happens to calmodulin when calcium ions bind to it?
    it undergoes a shape change and activates kinase
  24. What occurs as a result of the activation of calmodulin and kinase?
    the myosin heads are activated
  25. What causes smooth muscle to shorten?
    the pivoting of myosin heads, in all directions, pulling actin filaments towards them
  26. True or False: In a smooth muscle contraction the T-tubules depolarize the membrane.
    False - there are no T-tubules in smooth muscle
  27. True or False: Thick and thin filaments run in all directions in smooth muscle tissue.
    True
  28. List the four functional properties of smooth muscle discussed in lecture.
    • autorhythmicity
    • contracts in response to stretching
    • partial contraction at rest
    • contraction amplitude
  29. Autorhythmicity means that smooth muscle can:
    initiate it's own contractions
  30. Why is the partial contraction of a resting smooth muscle important?
    allows us to relax or contract the tract or vessel

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