Microbiology Exam 2

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Microbiology Exam 2
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2010-03-21 22:33:56
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  1. A hypothesis that living organisms arise from nonliving matter
    Spontaneous generation
  2. disease causing microbe
    Germ
  3. organisms that are too small to be seen by the unaided eye.
    Microbe
  4. All living things are composed of cells and come from preexisting cells
    Cell Theory
  5. Keeps microbes in but air out - invented by Pasteur
    S-shaped flask
  6. Experimental steps t prove that a specific microbe causes a specific disease.
    Koch's postulates
  7. established the system of scientific nomenclature.
    Linnaeus
  8. Reported that living things were composed of little boxes of cells (which were monks rooms)
    Robert Hooke
  9. Descrived lice microorganisms that he ovserved in teeth scrapings, rain water, feces, etc.
    Antoni van Leeuwenhoek
  10. Said cells arise from preexisting cells
    Rudolf Virchow
  11. Demonstrated that micro organisms are present in the air
    Louis Pasteur
  12. Advocated hand washing to prevent transmission of puerperal fever from one OB patient to another
    Ignaz Semmelwise
  13. Proved that a bacterium causes anthrax and provided that experimental steps to prove that a specific microbe causes specific diseases.
    Robert Koch
  14. Inoculated a person with cowpox virus. Ther person was then protected from small pox
    Edward Jenner
  15. Developed a synthetic arsenic drug, salvarsan, to treat sphilis
    Paul Ehrlich
  16. Discovered the first antibiotic.
    Alexander Flemming
  17. the smallest quantity of an element that can take part in a chemical
    reaction´╗┐
    atom
  18. The smallest particle of a substance that retains the chemical and
    physical properties of the substance and is composed of two or more
    atoms
    molecule
  19. Any of a group of complex compounds found in all living cells and
    viruses, composed of purines, pyrimidines, carbohydrates, and phosphoric
    acid. Nucleic acids in the form of DNA and RNA control cellular
    function and heredity
    Nucleic acid
  20. are essential for cell structure and function
    proteins
  21. Provide energy by releaseing bond energy and carbon to build new molecules. E.g. Sugars
    Carbohydrates
  22. Store large amounts of energetic bonds efficiently. E.g. Fats
    Lipids
  23. the image from the objective lens is magnified again by the ocular lens
    compound microscope
  24. classifies bacteria into gram-pos and gram-neg bacteria
    Gram stain
  25. the ability of a microscope, telescope, or other optical instrument to
    produce separate images of closely placed objects
    resolving power
  26. To treat (specimens for the microscope) with a reagent or dye that makes
    visible certain structures without affecting others
    differential stain
  27. one circular chromosome, not in the membrane
    no organelles
    Peptidoglycan cell walls
    binary fission
    Prokaryotes
  28. Paired chromosomes, in nuclear membrane
    Organelles
    Polysaccharides cell walls
    mitotic spindle
    Eukaryote
  29. membrane is as viscous as olive oil
    Proteins move to function
    Fluid mosaic model
  30. Movement of a solute from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
    Simple diffusion
  31. Solute combines witha transporter protein in the membrane
    Facilitative diffusion
  32. a stubstance require a transporter protien and ATP
    Active Transport
  33. water moves into the cell and may cause the cell to burst if the wall is weak or damaged
    Hypotonic Solution
  34. water moves out of the cell causing its cytoplasm to shrink
    Hypertonic solution
  35. The sugar coat, made of polysaccharides
    Glycocalyx
  36. Resting cells, that are resistant to desiccation heat and chemicals
    Endospores
  37. Allow attachment
    fimbraie
  38. Are used to transfer DNA from one cell to another. AKA bacterial sex
    Pili
  39. clusters
    staphylo-
  40. chains
    strepto-
  41. The energy releasing processes
    Catabolism
  42. The energy using processes
    Anabolism
  43. when a protein can no longer function
    Denatured
  44. The final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain is colecular oxygen. (Uses Oxygen0
    Aerobic respiration
  45. The final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain is not O2, is part of the kerbs cycle. (no oxygen)
    Anaerobic respiration
  46. releases energy for oxidation of organic molecules,.
    Does NOT require oxygen
    Fermentation
  47. Lactic acid, ethanol, propionic acid, etc
    End products of fermentation
  48. microbial contamination
    sepsis
  49. the absence of significant contamination
    Asepsis
  50. removal of all microbial life
    Sterilization
  51. removal of pathogens
    Disinfection
  52. lower microbial counts on eating utensils
    Sanitization
  53. A chemical agent, such as a pesticide, that is capable of destroying
    living organisms.
    Biocide
  54. An agent, such as a chemical or
    biological material, that inhibits bacterial growth.
    bacteriostatic
  55. Depends on: number of microbes, environment, them of exposure, and microbial characteristics
    Effectiveness of antimicrobial treatment
  56. How does alchohol used as a disinfectant
    Denatures proteins
  57. a segment of DNA that encodes a functional product, usually a protein
    Gene
  58. The process by which messenger RNA is synthesized from a DNA template
    resulting in the transfer of genetic information from the DNA molecule
    to the messenger RNA.
    Transcription
  59. The process by which messenger RNA directs the amino acid sequence of a
    growing polypeptide during protein synthesis.
    Translation
  60. To block (transcription of a gene) by combination of a protein to an
    operator gene.
    repressible
  61. To cause an increase in the transcription of the RNA of (a gene).
    inducible
  62. Enzymes are expressed at a fixed rate, always produced
    Constitutive
  63. A change in genetic material
    Mutation
  64. The alteration of a bacterial cell caused by the transfer of DNA from
    another bacterial cell, especially a pathogen.
    Transformation
  65. The natural formation in offspring of
    genetic combinations not present in parents, by the processes of
    crossing over or independent assortment.
    recombination
  66. Sharing of genetic information
    conjugation
  67. The science of classifying organisms
    Taxonomy
  68. Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya are part of the?
    Three Domain System
  69. concerns the origins of mitochondria and plastids (e.g. chloroplasts),which are organelles of eukaryotic
    cells. According to this theory, these organelles originated as separate prokaryotic organisms which were taken inside the cell as endosymbionts.
    Endosymbiotic Theory
  70. A catchall for eukaryotic organisms that do not fit other kingdoms
    Protista
  71. a key used to identify a plant or animal in which each stage presents
    descriptions of two distinguishing characters, with a direction to
    another stage in the key, until the species is identified
    Dichotomous Key
  72. ribosomal RNA
    rRNA
  73. A branching, treelike diagram in which the endpoints of the branches
    represent specific species of organisms. It is used to illustrate
    phylogenetic relationships and show points at which various species have
    diverged from common ancestral forms.
    cladogram
  74. an organism that obtains its energy from the oxidation of organic
    compounds
    chemoheterotroph
  75. the study of fungi
    mycology
  76. Any of various fungi that often cause disintegration of organic matter.
    Mold
  77. A type of body found among plants and fungi that is not differentiated
    into roots, stems, or leaves
    thallus
  78. Any of the threadlike filaments forming the mycelium of a fungus.
    hyphae
  79. unicellular fungi, fission divide symmetrically, budding dicide asymmetrically
    yeasts
  80. Existing or occurring in two distinct forms;
    dimorphic
  81. an organism that is formed by the symbiotic association of a fungus and
    an alga or cyanobacterium and occurs as crusty patches or bushy growths
    on tree trunks, bare ground, etc. Lichens are now classified as a phylum
    of fungi
    lichen
  82. unicellular, chemoheterotrophs, vegatatie for mis trophozoite, asexual reproducion and sexual, produce cysts
    protozoa
  83. Eukaryotic, multicellular animals, kingdom; animalia (flat worms, round worms)
    Helminths
  84. the host in which the sexual reproduction of a parasite takes place
    definitive host
  85. a host that is used by a parasite in the course of its life cycle
    intermediate host
  86. what is 200 x 20nm?
    prion
  87. what is 10,000 nm
    human red blood cell
  88. How can you grow viruses in a laboratory?
    in living animals and in embryonated eggs
  89. Phage causees lysis and death of host cell, virus replicates unrestrictedly
    lytic cycle
  90. Prophage DNA incorporated in host DNA
    Lysogenic cycle
  91. viruses attach to cell membrane
    attachment
  92. nucleic acid and capsid proteins assemble
    maturation
  93. the study of disease
    pathology
  94. the study of the cause of disease
    etiology
  95. the developement of disease
    Pathogenesis
  96. colonization of the body by pathogens
    infection
  97. an abnormal state in which the body is not functioning normally
    disease
  98. Permanently colonized the host, such as the intestines
    normal microbiota
  99. the relationship between two organisms, such as a human and bacteria
    symbiosis
  100. one organism is benefited and the other is unaffected
    commensalism
  101. both organisms benefit
    mutualism
  102. one organism is benefited at the expense of the other
    parasitism
  103. a change in body function that is felt by a patient as a result of disease
    symptom
  104. a change in a body that can be measured or observed as a result of disease
    sign
  105. a specific group of signs and symptoms that accompany a disease
    syndrome
  106. a disease that is spread from one host to another
    communicable
  107. a disease that is easily spread from one host to another
    contagious
  108. a disease that is not transmitted from one host to another
    noncommunicable
  109. fraction of a population having a specific disease at a given time
    prevalence
  110. disease that occurs occasionally in a population (west nile)
    sporadic
  111. disease constatnly present in a population
    endemic
  112. diesease acquired by many hosts in a given area in a short time
    epidemic
  113. worldwide epidemic
    Pandemic
  114. disease that symptoms develope rapidly
    acute
  115. disease that developes slowly
    chronic
  116. disease witha period of no symptoms when the patient is inactive
    latent
  117. pathogens are limited to a small area of the body
    local infection
  118. an infection throughout the body
    systemic
  119. systemic infection that began as a locan infection
    focal
  120. bacteria in the blood
    baceremia
  121. growth of bacteria in the blood
    septicemia
  122. hospital accuired infection
    nosocomial
  123. portals of entry
    mucous membranes, skin, parenteral route
  124. Infectious dose for 50% of the test population
    ID 50
  125. Lethal Dose (of a toxin) for 50% of the test population
    LD 50
  126. Portals of exit
    Respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, genitourianary tract, skin, and blood
  127. Lack of resistance to a disease
    susceptibility
  128. ability to ward off disease
    immunity
  129. defenses against any pathogen
    innate immunity
  130. immnity, resistance to a specific pathogen
    adaptive immunity
  131. ingestion of microbes or particles by a cell, performed by phagocytes
    Phagocytosis
  132. A substance that causes the body to produce specific antibodies or sensitized T cells
    Antigen (Ag)
  133. Proteins made in response to an Antigen; can combine with that Antigen
    Antibody (Ab)
  134. has become a widely accepted model for how the immune system responds to infection
    and how certain types of B and T lymphocytes are selected for destruction of specific antigens
    invading the body.
    Clonal Selection
  135. inoculation of cowpox into skin (cross reactivity)
    vaccination
  136. resluts when most of a population is immune to a disease
    herd immunity
  137. Diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and accellular pertussis combination
    vaccine.
    DtaP
  138. vaccine that is absolutely not alive and can not replicate
    inactive vaccine
  139. a vaccine that is alive, but changed a little
    attenuated virus
  140. What are the four harmful immune responses?
    Allergies, Transplant rejection, Autoimmunity, Superantigens
  141. A glycoprotein on the surface of helper T cells that serves as a
    receptor for HIV.
    CD4
  142. A chemokine receptor; defects in its structure caused by genetic
    mutation cause the progression of AIDS to be prevented or slowed.
    CCR5
  143. In what fluids can HIV be transmitted
    • *Sexual contact
    • *Breast milk
    • *Transplacental infection of fetus
    • *Blood-contamination
    • *Organ Transplants
    • *Artificial insemination
    • *Blood transfusion
  144. A substance produced by a microbe that, in small amounts, inhibits another microbe
    Antibiotic
  145. ToxDose50/EffDose50
    Therapeutic indes
  146. an antibiotic that is effective against a wide range of infectious
    microorganisms.
    Broad spectrum
  147. An agent that destroys bacteria
    bactericidal
  148. preventing bacteria from growing and multiplying but possibly not
    killing them.
    bacteriostatic
  149. A drug that is similar to the drug from which it is derived.
    analogs
  150. Chloramphenicol, Aminoglycosides, Tetracyclines, Quinolones and fluoroquinolones
    Broad Spectrum antibiotics
  151. inhibits DNA Synthesis (malaria)
    Cholroquine
  152. Damages DNA (entamoeba, trichomonas)
    Metronidazole
  153. alters membrane permeability (flatworms)
    Praziquantel
  154. inhibits nutrient absorbtion (intestinal round worms)
    Mebendazole
  155. Paralyzes worm (intestinal round worm)
    Ivermectin
  156. cytosin analog interferes with RNA synthsis
    Flucytocine
  157. used for superficial mycoses
    Griseofulvin
  158. Used for athletes foot; action unknown
    Tolnaftate
  159. 4 recomendations by the CDC for "safer sex"
    • Don't have sex
    • Use condoms
    • Be faithful
    • Talk frankly with our doctor or nutse about your sex partener about any STDs you or your partner have had
  160. A disease which can be spread from animals to humans.´╗┐
    zoonotic
  161. An inanimate object or substance, such as clothing, furniture, or soap,
    that is capable of transmitting infectious organisms from one individual
    to another.
    fomite
  162. The branch of medicine that deals with
    the study of the causes, distribution, and control of disease in
    populations.
    epidemiology
  163. any abnormal condition that follows and is the result of a disease,
    treatment, or injury, such as paralysis after poliomyelitis, deafness
    after treatment with an ototoxic drug, or scar formation after a
    laceration.
    sequelae
  164. Cystitis is defined as inflammation of the urinary bladder.
    cystitis
  165. an inflammation of the kidney and upper urinary tract that usually
    results from noncontagious bacterial infection of the bladder
    pyelonephritis

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