A hypothesis that living organisms arise from nonliving matter
disease causing microbe
organisms that are too small to be seen by the unaided eye.
All living things are composed of cells and come from preexisting cells
Keeps microbes in but air out - invented by Pasteur
Experimental steps t prove that a specific microbe causes a specific disease.
established the system of scientific nomenclature.
Reported that living things were composed of little boxes of cells (which were monks rooms)
Descrived lice microorganisms that he ovserved in teeth scrapings, rain water, feces, etc.
Antoni van Leeuwenhoek
Said cells arise from preexisting cells
Demonstrated that micro organisms are present in the air
Advocated hand washing to prevent transmission of puerperal fever from one OB patient to another
Proved that a bacterium causes anthrax and provided that experimental steps to prove that a specific microbe causes specific diseases.
Inoculated a person with cowpox virus. Ther person was then protected from small pox
Developed a synthetic arsenic drug, salvarsan, to treat sphilis
Discovered the first antibiotic.
the smallest quantity of an element that can take part in a chemical
The smallest particle of a substance that retains the chemical and
physical properties of the substance and is composed of two or more
Any of a group of complex compounds found in all living cells and
viruses, composed of purines, pyrimidines, carbohydrates, and phosphoric
acid. Nucleic acids in the form of DNA and RNA control cellular
function and heredity
are essential for cell structure and function
Provide energy by releaseing bond energy and carbon to build new molecules. E.g. Sugars
Store large amounts of energetic bonds efficiently. E.g. Fats
the image from the objective lens is magnified again by the ocular lens
classifies bacteria into gram-pos and gram-neg bacteria
the ability of a microscope, telescope, or other optical instrument to
produce separate images of closely placed objects
To treat (specimens for the microscope) with a reagent or dye that makes
visible certain structures without affecting others
one circular chromosome, not in the membrane
Peptidoglycan cell walls
membrane is as viscous as olive oil
Proteins move to function
Fluid mosaic model
Movement of a solute from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
Solute combines witha transporter protein in the membrane
a stubstance require a transporter protien and ATP
water moves into the cell and may cause the cell to burst if the wall is weak or damaged
water moves out of the cell causing its cytoplasm to shrink
The sugar coat, made of polysaccharides
Resting cells, that are resistant to desiccation heat and chemicals
Are used to transfer DNA from one cell to another. AKA bacterial sex
The energy releasing processes
The energy using processes
when a protein can no longer function
The final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain is colecular oxygen. (Uses Oxygen0
The final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain is not O2, is part of the kerbs cycle. (no oxygen)
releases energy for oxidation of organic molecules,.
Does NOT require oxygen
Lactic acid, ethanol, propionic acid, etc
End products of fermentation
the absence of significant contamination
removal of all microbial life
removal of pathogens
lower microbial counts on eating utensils
A chemical agent, such as a pesticide, that is capable of destroying
An agent, such as a chemical or
biological material, that inhibits bacterial growth.
Depends on: number of microbes, environment, them of exposure, and microbial characteristics
Effectiveness of antimicrobial treatment
How does alchohol used as a disinfectant
a segment of DNA that encodes a functional product, usually a protein
The process by which messenger RNA is synthesized from a DNA template
resulting in the transfer of genetic information from the DNA molecule
to the messenger RNA.
The process by which messenger RNA directs the amino acid sequence of a
growing polypeptide during protein synthesis.
To block (transcription of a gene) by combination of a protein to an
To cause an increase in the transcription of the RNA of (a gene).
Enzymes are expressed at a fixed rate, always produced
A change in genetic material
The alteration of a bacterial cell caused by the transfer of DNA from
another bacterial cell, especially a pathogen.
The natural formation in offspring of
genetic combinations not present in parents, by the processes of
crossing over or independent assortment.
Sharing of genetic information
The science of classifying organisms
Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya are part of the?
Three Domain System
concerns the origins of mitochondria and plastids (e.g. chloroplasts),which are organelles of eukaryotic
cells. According to this theory, these organelles originated as separate prokaryotic organisms which were taken inside the cell as endosymbionts.
A catchall for eukaryotic organisms that do not fit other kingdoms
a key used to identify a plant or animal in which each stage presents
descriptions of two distinguishing characters, with a direction to
another stage in the key, until the species is identified
A branching, treelike diagram in which the endpoints of the branches
represent specific species of organisms. It is used to illustrate
phylogenetic relationships and show points at which various species have
diverged from common ancestral forms.
an organism that obtains its energy from the oxidation of organic
the study of fungi
Any of various fungi that often cause disintegration of organic matter.
A type of body found among plants and fungi that is not differentiated
into roots, stems, or leaves
Any of the threadlike filaments forming the mycelium of a fungus.
an organism that is formed by the symbiotic association of a fungus and
an alga or cyanobacterium and occurs as crusty patches or bushy growths
on tree trunks, bare ground, etc. Lichens are now classified as a phylum
unicellular, chemoheterotrophs, vegatatie for mis trophozoite, asexual reproducion and sexual, produce cysts
Eukaryotic, multicellular animals, kingdom; animalia (flat worms, round worms)
the host in which the sexual reproduction of a parasite takes place
a host that is used by a parasite in the course of its life cycle
what is 200 x 20nm?
what is 10,000 nm
human red blood cell
How can you grow viruses in a laboratory?
in living animals and in embryonated eggs
Phage causees lysis and death of host cell, virus replicates unrestrictedly
Prophage DNA incorporated in host DNA
viruses attach to cell membrane
nucleic acid and capsid proteins assemble
the study of disease
the study of the cause of disease
the developement of disease
colonization of the body by pathogens
an abnormal state in which the body is not functioning normally
Permanently colonized the host, such as the intestines
the relationship between two organisms, such as a human and bacteria
one organism is benefited and the other is unaffected
both organisms benefit
one organism is benefited at the expense of the other
a change in body function that is felt by a patient as a result of disease
a change in a body that can be measured or observed as a result of disease
a specific group of signs and symptoms that accompany a disease
a disease that is spread from one host to another
a disease that is easily spread from one host to another
a disease that is not transmitted from one host to another
fraction of a population having a specific disease at a given time
disease that occurs occasionally in a population (west nile)
disease constatnly present in a population
diesease acquired by many hosts in a given area in a short time
disease that symptoms develope rapidly
disease that developes slowly
disease witha period of no symptoms when the patient is inactive
pathogens are limited to a small area of the body
an infection throughout the body
systemic infection that began as a locan infection
bacteria in the blood
growth of bacteria in the blood
hospital accuired infection
portals of entry
mucous membranes, skin, parenteral route
Infectious dose for 50% of the test population
Lethal Dose (of a toxin) for 50% of the test population
Portals of exit
Respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, genitourianary tract, skin, and blood
Lack of resistance to a disease
ability to ward off disease
defenses against any pathogen
immnity, resistance to a specific pathogen
ingestion of microbes or particles by a cell, performed by phagocytes
A substance that causes the body to produce specific antibodies or sensitized T cells
Proteins made in response to an Antigen; can combine with that Antigen
has become a widely accepted model for how the immune system responds to infection
and how certain types of B and T lymphocytes are selected for destruction of specific antigens
invading the body.
inoculation of cowpox into skin (cross reactivity)
resluts when most of a population is immune to a disease
Diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and accellular pertussis combination
vaccine that is absolutely not alive and can not replicate
Talk frankly with our doctor or nutse about your sex partener about any STDs you or your partner have had
A disease which can be spread from animals to humans.
An inanimate object or substance, such as clothing, furniture, or soap,
that is capable of transmitting infectious organisms from one individual
The branch of medicine that deals with
the study of the causes, distribution, and control of disease in
any abnormal condition that follows and is the result of a disease,
treatment, or injury, such as paralysis after poliomyelitis, deafness
after treatment with an ototoxic drug, or scar formation after a
Cystitis is defined as inflammation of the urinary bladder.
an inflammation of the kidney and upper urinary tract that usually
results from noncontagious bacterial infection of the bladder