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What are the five types of research?
What is Descriptive Research?
Research that is concerned with the description of individual variables. Not concerned with relationships b/t variables.
What is Correlational Research?
Measures two variables for each individual and produces data. Describes the relationship but does not explain.
What is Experimental Rescearch?
Intends to answer cause and effect questions about the relationship between two variables. Trys to explain the relationship by looking for a cause. There is control.
What is Quasi Experiment?
Attempts to answer cause and effect with control but it always has a flaw. Ex. Depression was reduced but you cannot conclude that it was because of the therapy. There isn't a way to control for everything.
What is Validity?
Degree to which the study accurately answers the questions it was intended to answer.
What is Internal Validity?
A study that produces a single, unambiguous explanation for the relationship between two variables.
Any factor that allows for an alternative explanation is a threat to internal validity.
What is External Validity?
Generalizing the results of a research study to people, setting, times, measures, and characteristic other than those used in that study.
A threat to external validity is any characteristic of study that limits the generality of the results.
What are three types of External Validity?
- Generalization from a sample to a general population.
- Generalization from one research study to another.
- Generalization from a research study to a real situation.
Is a threat to internal validity. It is any variable in a research study other than the specific variable being studied.
Is a extraneous variable, which is a threat to internal validity. It provides an alternative explanation for the observed relationship between the two variables.
Observes and records the behavior of individual in the order to describes the behavior.
- Naturalistic Observation Participant Observation
- Contrived/ Structured Observation
The researcher observes behavior in natural setting as unobtrusively as possible.
Researcher engages in the same activites as the people being observed in order to observe and record their behavior.
Contrived/ Structured Observation
Observer sets up a situation so that events can happen without waiting on them to occur naturally.
A research study that uses a surveys to obtain a description of a particular group of individuals.
Ways to administer surveys
- Mail Survey
- Telephone Survey
- In Person Surveys and Interviews
Mail Survey Strengths
- Convenient and anonymous
- Nonthreating to participants
- Easy to adminster
Mail Survey Weakness
- Can be expensive
- Low response rate and nonresponse bias
- Unsure exactly who completes the survey
Telephone survey Strengths
- Can be conducted from a home or a office
- Participants can stay at home or office.
Telephone Survey Weakness
- Time Consuming
- Potential for interviewer bias.
In Person Survey Strengths
- Efficient to administer with groups
- 100% response rate.
- Flexible (groups or individual interviews)
In Person Surveys Weakness
- Time consuming with individual interviews.
- Risk of interviewer bias.
With-in Subjects Designs
- Different groups of scores are all obtained from the same group of participants.
- Two scores, one sample.
Obtaining different groups of scores from a separate group of participants. Two set of scores and two separate groups.
Advantages of Between Subjects
- Each individual score is independent of other scores.
- Can be used for wide variety of research questions.
- Can contaminated by other treatment factors.
Disadvantages of Between Subjects
- Require a relatively large number of participants
- The required large number can cause problems with a very limited groups.
Threats to Internal Validity
- Category I: Effects all studies.
- Environmental variables: size of room, time of the day.
- Category II: Comparing different groups
- Assignment bias
- Category III: Comparing one group overtime
- Testing Effect
Threat to External Validity
- Category I: Generalizing across participant
- Selecting Bias Volunteet Bias
- College Students Participants Characteristics
- Category II: Across features of study
- Novelty effects, Multiple treatment interference
- Category III: Across features of measures
- Time of measurement, time of day when it done
History of Action
- Addresses societal issues
- Kurt Lewin (1930) coined term
- Wanted group discussion regrading societal issues
- Practice and Practitioners
- Community action and advocacy
Critic of Action Research
- Not a legitimate form of research
- Lack of scholarly reporting
- Lack of rigor of systematic approach
Stringer's Action Research Interaction Spiral
- Collecting, recording, analyzing, reporting data
- Interpreting issues
- Identifying actions
- Divising Solutions
Action Research Designs
- Performed by teachers and administrators
- Specific educational problems
- Applied in focus
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