Bio 2970 Exam 2

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Bio 2970 Exam 2
2011-11-01 20:40:37

Larson's vocab
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  1. Lewinton's Two Threats to Evolutionary Theory
    • Fit of hostility: creationism
    • Fit of enthusiasm: expands explanatory scheme to account for human culture and ideas
  2. Which threat to evolutionary theory expands the explanatory scheme to account for human culture and ideas?
    Fit of enthusiasm
  3. The assumption that the laws of chemistry and physics have been constant throughtout Earth's history
    • Uniformity of law
    • (methodological assumption of Lyell's uniformitarianism)
  4. The assumption that we can use familiar geological processes to explain past events.
    • Uniformity of process
    • (methodological assumption of Lyell's uniformitarianism)
  5. The hypothesis that geological change occurs in small increments that accumulate over time to produce large changes.
    • Gradualism
    • (testable hypothesis of Lyell's uniformitarianism)
  6. Dynamic steady state
    • Nondirectionalism
    • (testable hypothesis of Lyell's uniformitarianism)
  7. Darwinism + chromosomal theory of inheritance
  8. Thomas Huxley's prescription that Darwin's theories should be subjected to "active doubt"
  9. The simplest hypothesis is the best working hypothesis
  10. Rational explanation based on measurable natural phenomena
    • Theory:
    • Potentially falsifiable
    • Parsimony
    • No positive proof
    • Empirical verification and power
    • No magic, supernatural, or unknowable factors
  11. Scientists must describe both the volitional (subjective) and cognitonal (objective) aspects of measurement.
    Complementarity Principle
  12. The biological world is neither constant nor perpetually cycling but is steadily and perhaps directionally changing
    Evolution as such
  13. The smallest unit of biological complexity that evolves
  14. All our plants and animals have descended from some one form into which life was first breathed.
    Common Descent
  15. Ancestor-descendant populations through time.
  16. Separate lineages accumulate differences from each other and from their common ancestor
    Divergence of character
  17. The structure of evolutionary history is a branching tree of lineages
  18. Haeckel's Biogenetic Law
    "Ontogeny Recapitulates Phylogeny"
  19. Assumptions of Haeckel's Biogenetic Law
    • Terminal addition: new features are added to the end of ontogeny
    • Condensation: older features are displaced to earlier and shorter developmental occurrences
  20. Evolution of new characters restricted to preadult stages
  21. Evolutionary change in developmental rates and timing
  22. Evolutionary change in the physical location of a developmental process
  23. Characteristic semi-autonomous patterns of gene expression and cellular proliferation and differentiation
  24. Owen defined it as the same organ in different organisms under every variety of form and function
  25. Forms derived from an equivalent characteristic of a common evolutionary ancestor
  26. A group of two or more species/lineages that includes the most recent common ancestor of all members of the group and all of its descendants; diagnosed by the sharing of homologies
    Monophyletic group (clade)
  27. Shared derived character
  28. Branches denote the nested hierarchy of clades as diagnosed by synapomorphies
  29. Branches denote historical evolutionary lineages
    Phylogenetic tree
  30. Character similarity that does not represent common ancestry
  31. Type of homoplasy in which lineages derive from their common ancestor, but not from each other
  32. Type of homoplasy in which there is an evolutionary return to an ancestral character formerly changed or lost
  33. Type of homoplasy that explains the origin of superficially similar features by dissimilar evolutionary processes
    • Convergence
    • Ex: bird wing and bat wing
  34. An analytical procedure in which genetic distances for pairwise comparisons of taxa are put in matrices and used to infer phylogenetic trees
    Distance-based Method
  35. An analytical procedure for inferring phylogeny in which fitting a statistical model of base substitution replaces the parsimony method
    Maximum likelihood or Bayesian analysis
  36. Geographic splitting of a population followed by evolutionary divergence of the separated parts
    Multiplication of species
  37. Geographic isolation of populations precedes evolution of species-level differences
    Allopathic speciation
  38. Mayr's term for a reproductive community of populations (reproductively isolated from others) that occupies a specific niche in nature
    Biological Species Concept
  39. Set of resources actually or potentially used by a population