# Intro to Statistics - Pagano

 The flashcards below were created by user Anonymous on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What is Hypothesis Testing Researcher draws inferences regarding a hypothesis about a population. Describe Alternative Hypothesis the hypothesis that claims that the effect on the dependent variable is due to the independant variable. Describe Null Hypothesis Whatever effects there are on the dependent variable are NOT due to the independent variable but are due to chance. If the NULL is FALSE the alterantive is TRUE Alpha Level The level to which a researcher limits the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true. (Type 1 Error) Type 1 Error A decision to REJECT the NULL when it is in fact true. (results are due to chance, yet you still conclude they are due to the independent variable) Type 2 Error A decision to RETAIN the NULL when it is false. (to conclude results are due to chance when they are in fact due to the independent variable) Significant result Null has been rejected and the alternative has been retained. Steps to Calculate POWER with a SIGN Test 1) Assume Null is true. 50/50Create grid:outcomessum of outcomesgreater than alpha? 2) for each P event use the equivelent Q eventon table B locate the Q event at the percentage of 100-preal Add the outcomes percentagesIF 2 TAIL double the answer Factors increasing POWER 1) Increase N2) as p-real deviates father from .503) as alpha increases4) when we use a 1 tail test (not 2 tail) Power the probability that the results of an experiment will allow the rejection of the null hypothesis if the independent variable is true. real effect an effect that produces significant change in the dependent variable P -NULL the probability of getting a plus with any participant in the sample of an experiment when the independent variable has no effect (ALWAYS .50) P-REAL The probability of getting a plus with any participant in the sample of an experiment when the independent variable has a reall effect. Sampling distribution of a statistic 1) Gives all the values that the statistic can take2) Gives the probability of getting each value under the assumption that it resulted from chance alone. Sampling distribution of the mean Gives all the values that the mean can take and the probability of getting each value if the sampling is done at random from a population where the independent variable has no effect Critical region for rejection of the null hypothesis Area under the curve that contains all the values of the statistic taht allow rejection of the null hypothesis Critical value of a statistic the value of the statistic that bounds the critical region Z-OBT is greater than Z-CRIT Reject the null hypothesis if Z-OBT is less than Z-CRIT Retain the Null hypothesis Z-CRIT 1 tail 1.645 Z-CRIT 2 tail 1.96 AuthorAnonymous ID113810 Card SetIntro to Statistics - Pagano DescriptionIntro to Stats sign test and hypothesis testing Updated2011-11-02T00:59:23Z Show Answers