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What are the classification for blood pressures in adults? (numbers)
- Normal - <120systolic / <80 diastolic
- Pre HTN - 120-139/80-89
- Stage 1- 140-159/90-99
- Stage 2- >160systolic / >100 diastolic
True or False? African Americans have a greater incidence of hypertension.
Blood Pressure is the product of cardiac output times ________?
Peripheral vascular resistence.
CO X PVR= BP
What is the flow rate of filtered fluid through the kidneys?
GFR - glomeruler filtration rate
A high BP from an identified cause is_____?
When a BP is severely elevated and there is evidence of actual or probable organ damage is called?
True or False?
Primary HTN is most common and has no known cause.
True. Unidentified or unknown etiology.
This is when a BP is severly high but there is NO evidence of organ damage...____?
True or false?
Rebound hypertension is when blood pressure becomes uncontrolled when antihypertensives are abruptly stopped.
Prolonged elevated blood pressure causes damage to the vascular system and what organs?
Hypertension can result from?
- Increased cardiac output
- Increased peripheral vascular resistance
- Problems with the bodies control system
- or all of the above
Does HTN usually have symptoms?
Name three symptoms that are seen when a client has organ damage from HTN.
- MI or Hypertrophy (usually left ventricle)- angina
- Vision problems or retinal changes
- Renal damage -Increased BUN and Creatinine levels
- CVA or TIA
Hypertensive clients are more at risk for cardiovascular problems, what are some other risk factors?
(in addition to HTN)
- sedentary lifestyle
- advanced age >55 in men >65 in women
BP should vary no more than___mm/hg between arms.
People with diabetes or chronic renal disease should keep BP below what?
What are the three actions medications produce to reduce BP?
- decrease peripheral resistance
- decrease blood volume
- decrease the strength and rate of myocarial contraction
Name three lifestyle modifications that should lower BP.
- Physical activity
- Weight loss
- Decreased sodium diet
True or False?
A beta blocker, diuretics or both are initally used for the treatment of HTN.
Beta Blockers - block the _______nervous system and ________ heart rate and blood pressure.
Hold Beta blocker medicine if heart rate is less than____?
ACE inhibitors _____ peripheral resistance by inhibiting the conversion of angiotension I to angiotension __.
- decrease peripheral vascular resistance
- angiotension II
Angiotension II is blocked at the receptor site by these medicines?
ARB's. Angiotension II Receptor Blockers
This class of drug reduces BP by inhibiting calcium ion influx, reduces the cardiac afterload, and slows the velocity of conduction in the heart.
Calcium Channel Blocker
A hypertensive emergency is classified as greater than___/___.
The RN should attempt to reduce the BP in ahypertensive emergency by __% in the first hour of treatment?
In hypertensive emergencies the drug of choice for inital reduction is_____?
vasodialators. i.e. nitroprusside, cardine, corlopram and NTG.
Clients in hypertenive urgency should have their BP decrease over a period of___-___hrs. By using_____.
- 24-48 hrs
- PO Fast acting Beta blockers, ACE inhib. and alpha 2 agonists
Dash stands for?
dietary approaches to stop hypertension.
Hypertension is based on ___ or more correct measurments over the normal limit.
2 or more.
What is the force in the blood vessels that the left ventricle must pump against?
peripheral vascular resistance
The diameter of the blood vessels are regulated by_____?
Vasomotor center in the medulla of the brain.
Arteriole baro receptors are found in the _______, ______, and_____.
carodid sinus, aorta and the walls of the left venticle
Clients who are on diuretics should eat foods high in _______?