Reaction against bebop, generally relaxed, light feel, less emphasis on rhythm, less influence from blues/gospel music
What style directly opposes the bebop aesthetic?
What is the bebop aesthetic?
What are all post-bop jazz musicians considered?
artists rather than entertainers (music for listening).
Musical Characteristics of cool jazz?
Generally relaxed, light feel
Less emphasis on rhythm
Less influence from blues/gospel music
What is Cool Jazz closely associated with?
"West Coast Jazz"
What is "Third Stream"?
the blending of jazz and classical music
What is West Coast Jazz?
many prominent cool jazz musicians from CA
What are the historical/social contexts going on during the cool jazz period?
Segregation still common practice, but more integrated groups--both live and recorded
RnR, Soul, and Doo Wop bands take over as the nations poular music after swing.
The LP (33rpm) was introduced in 1948, and the concept of an album is developed in the 1950s, instead of the 78 rpm singles.
Recording quality improves
Who organized a group that embodied the cool aesthetics--light tone, relaxed feel, simplistic rhythm section playing?
Trumpeter Miles Davis and arranger Gil Evans
Describe the group miles davis and Gil Evans organized?
The group quietly began a movement with a full album in the cool style
What is the cool jazz album recorded by the group organized by miles davis and gil evans?
The Birth of the Cool (1949-50)
What are the musical characteristics of the cool jazz group organized by miles davis and gil evans?
unusual instrumentation, highly arranged, cool style improv by Miles Davis, Gerry Mulligan, Lee Konitz
What instrument did Miles Davis play?
What style period is miles davis associated with?
both cool jazz and hard bop
What instrument did Lennie Tristano play?
What style period is Lennie Tristano associated with?
What style piano did Lennie Tristano play?
modern jazz style apart from bebop during the 1940s.
Despite the lack of performances/recordings, _____ was an influential teacher.
Describe Lennie Tristano.
Classically trained pianist, and experimented in free form group improv--later known as free jazz
Who was Lennie Tristano's significant pupil?
Lee Konitz followed _____ while most were following Charlie Parker.
A relatively unaccomplished bebop sideman with Charlie Parker, achieved great commercial success in the 1950s.
What is Miles Davis' playing style?
use of space, simple melodies, signature harmon mute
What is Miles Davis known for?
Not known for technique, but known for musicianship and ability as a bandleader
What Quintet is associated with Miles Davis?
The Classic Davis Quintet
What Cool recording did the Classic Davis Quintet record?
"Kind of Blue"
What instrument did Chet Baker play?
What style period is Chet Baker Associated with?
Where was Chet Baker based?
What kind of style does Chet Baker have?
Like Davis, he developed a simple soloistic style, using few notes, with a light and airy sound
What was Chet Baker later known as?
a singer--imitating his trumpet style with his voice
Chet Baker successful?
What was the Stan Kenton Orchestra known for?
Progressive Jazz Style
What is progressive jazz?
a style of composing and arranging for big band, rather than a way of playing/improving
What did Stan Kenton's Progressive Jazz consist of?
Many Mood/Tempo changes
Stan Kenton is associated with what style period?
Where was Stan Kenton Orchestra based?
Stan Kenton's band consisted of....
many leading Cool/West Coast musicians
Who was the first prominent jazz musician to become seriously involved in jazz education?
What instrument did Dave Brubeck play?
What style period is Dave Brubeck associated with?
What was Dave Brubeck?
West Coast pianist and composer
What was Dave Brubeck influenced by?
Like Tristano, influenced by classical music
What kind of sound did Dave Brubeck have?
unique sound in the cool style
This artist used unusual rhythms in his compositions.
What songs did Dave Brubeck record?
"Take Five" and "Blue Ronde a la Turke" from Time Out album, featuring Paul Desmond
What instrument did Paul Desmond play?
Describe Dave Brubeck's success?
Commercial Success--Time Out peaked #2 on Billboard Pop Charts in 1959.
Blending elements of classical aesthetic with jazz style is called _____.
The Modern Jazz Quartet (MJQ) is associated with what style period?
Cool Jazz/Third stream
Who was in the Moder Jazz Quartet (MJQ)?
John Lewis (piano)
Milt Jackson (vibes)
Percy Heath (Bass)
Connie Kay (Drums)
What is the Modern Jazz Quartet likened to?
a classical chamber group
WHat was Guenther Schuller?
Orchestral conductor, composer, jazz musician, and promoter of jazz as a legitimate art form.
What style period is Guenther Schuller associated with?
Cool Jazz/ Third Stream
During the earl 1960s, _____ was embraced by Northern American audiences, through jazz musicians.
What is Bossa Nova?
a Brazilian style of music
Who are the founding composers/contributers of Bossa Nova?
Antonio Carlos Jobim and Joao Gilberto
Antonio Carlos Jobim is associated with what style period?
Cool Jazz/ Bossa Nova
Joao Gilberto is associated with what style period?
Cool Jazz/ Bossa Nova
Bossa Nova contains what musical characteristics?
It retains the cool aesthetics of relaxed feel, less emphasis on rhythm, and very little influence from blues and gospel
What recording marked the height of popularity of the Bossa Nova craze?
The Girl from Ipanema
The Girl from Ipanema featured what artists?
Stan Gets, Joao and Astrud Gilberto
Who won a Grammy for record of the year for The Girl from Ipanema?
Despite short poularity and relatively few artists, bossa nova....
has remained in the jazz standard repertoire
What stye period is Norman Granz associated with?
What did Norman Granz do?
LA based producer and promoter
What is Norman Granz known for?
Anti-racist policy, booking equally for black and white musicians (salary, accommodations, record contracts)
What did Norman Granz organize?
Jazz at the Philharmonic (JATP) tours, records, concerts
What are the dates for Hard Bop?
Describe Hard Bop
Reaction against cool Jazz, strong backbeat from drums, driving rhythms, extensive influence from blues and gospel
In Reaction to Cool jazz movement, musician wanted to do what?
continue playing bebop, but with the hard driving rhythms of African American blues and gospel music
Hard Bop opposes _______ of Cool Jazz.
the light tone, relaxed feel
What does Hard Bop favor?
driving rhythms, aggressive soloists, and traditional African American music
Clifford Brown and Max Roach are both players from a ______ background.
What instrument did Clifford Brown play?
Clifford Brown and Max Roach are associated with what style period?
Who was a leading example of clean living in jazz until his death at 25?
What artist is still considered one of the leading trumpet players?
What does Max Roach do with the drums?
defines them as a soloistic instrument
Max roach was later very vocally involved in what?
civil rights movement
What are Hard Bop musical characteristics?
reaction against cool
strong backbeat from drums, driving rhythms
Extensive influence from blues and gospel
What Historical/Social Context were going on during the Hard Bop period?
Civil Rights Movement gaining momentum
-Rosa Parks (1955)
-MLK begins practicing non-violent protests and founds Southern Christian Leadership Conference (1957)
-Malcom X establishing multiple Nation of Islam temples nation wide
What musical instrument did Art Blakey play?
What style period was art Blakey associated with?
What band did Art Blakey have?
Art Blakey and the Jazz Messengers
Art Blakey was a drummer and a __.
The Messengers changed members every few years, what did the band always feature?
What did Art Blakey's band (The Jazz Messengers) serve as?
a training ground for up and coming talents in the modern jazz scene
What Alumni are part of the Art Blakey's Jazz Messengers?
Horace Silver, Wayne Shorter, Wynton Marsalis, Clifford Brown, Curtis Fuller, Stanley Clarke, etc...
Describe the musical style of Art Blakey and the Jazz Messengers.
Performed in traditional styles, featuring works by composers in the group
What style period is Horace Silver associated with?
Horace Silver played what instrument?
Besides playing piano, what else did Horace Silver do?
composer and bandleader
What did Horace Silver's band feature?
Like Art Blakey, his band constantly featured young up and coming talent.
What do Horace Silver's compositins range from?
simple to complex, many now jazz standards
What comps did Horace Silver record?
What style period is Sonny Rollins associated with?
What instrument did Sonny Rollins play?
This artist is considered the leading saxophonist of the hard bop period.
Who was Sonny Rollins deeply influenced by?
The pianoless trio is associated with whom?
Why did Sonny Rollins not use a piano in his trio?
felt that a chordal accompanist limits harmonic possibilites
This artist was constantly frustrated and self critical, and as a result, took many sabbaticals to improve playing
In Miles Davis' Hard Bop Band, he what did he retain?
his signature sound (use of space, simple melodies, signature harmon mute) in cool jazz and hard bop groups
Who was part of Miles Davis' first great quintet/sextet?
Cannonball Adderley (alto sax)
John Coltrane (Tenor Sax)
Red Garland (Piano)
Paul Chambers (Bass)
"Philly Joe" Jones (Drums)
What instrument did Cannonball Adderley play?
Cannonball Adderley was more ___ oriented when he played.
What did Miles Davis' quintet/sextet define?
the hard-bop and cool jazz sounds in the 1950s
Like Hard Bop, _____ is also a reaction to cool jazz.
What is Soul Jazz heavenly influenced by?
blues, gospel, rhythm and blues (R&B), and popular soul music
What does Soul jazz feature?
Organ, often in an organ trio setting (organ, guitar, drums)
What organ did Soul Jazz organists usually play?
Soul Jazz Musicians
Organists: Les McCann, "Brother" Jack McDuff, Jimmy Smith, Shirley Scott
Saxophonists: Stanley Turrentine
Three of the most loved jazz albums by Miles Davis are....
Porgy and Bess
Stretches of Spain
Who recorded "I Fall in Love too Easily?"
Who recorded "A Trumpet"?
Stan Kenton's "A Trumpet" is considered what type of jazz?
What instrument did Guenther Schuller play?
What is the biggest third stream group?
Modern Jazz Quartet
Who is the second most prolific composer?
This artist died in a car accident, and only recorded between ages of 21 and 25.
Who recorded "Kiss and Run"?
Clifford Brown and Max Roach
Hard bop musicians wanted to have more ______ than Bebop musicians.
of a groove feeling
What kind of soloing style did Sonny Rollins have?
Motivic soloing style
What is a motivic soloing style?
Take a motiv (a little diddy) and mess with or change it up for a while
Sonny Rollins was a ______ addict for a long time.
J. J. Johnson plays what instrument?
Who recorded "Cranky Spanky"
What instrument did Wayne Shorter play?
What instrument did Freddie Hubbard play?
Who was Art Blakey's protege?
Who recorded "Serenade to a Soul Sister"?
Joe Henderson is associated with what style period?
What instrument did Joe Henderson play?
Who was Joe Henderson influenced by?
Rollins and Getz
Who recorded "Flamingo Stretches"?
What instrument did Wes Montgomery play?
What did Wes Montgomery play his guitar with?
thumb instead of a pick
Known as one of the few prominent guitar soloists of the 1950s and one of the best in jazz history
How did wes Montgomery play the guitar?
playing single line melodies and octaves
What is the difference b/w soul jazz and Hard-bop?
featuring of the organ in soul jazz
Who are the big bandleaders of the 1950s?
Thad Jones and Maynard Ferguson
What instrument did Thad jones play?
What instrument did Maynard Ferguson play?
Describe Thad Jones' and his big band
harmonically daring solo improv and comps/arrangements
featured top players throughout history
Describe Maynard Ferguson and his big band
Kenton band alum
bright, brassy sounds, commercial material
known more for technique than solo ability
How are cool jazz and hard bop similar?
instrumentation stays the same
Describe the soloists of the hard bop era.
aggressive soloists, that play very busy lines
What is Miles Davis primarily known as?
a great bandleader
Many of the musicians whose work has been called, "cool" were influenced by whom?
Lester Young and Count Basie
Stan Gets and Miles Davis were both inspired by _____.
Who created a modern jazz alternative to bop?
What did Lee Konitz develop and maintain?
his own Tristano-inspired style at a time when most other young alto saxophonists were imitating Charlie Parker
led the best known succession of big bands in modern jazz, and e presented repertories that spanned several eras and featured numerous styles
The term "hard bop" was coined by jazz pianist-teacher-scholar _____.
What 4 categories of jazz has the term hard bop been applied to?
1. a gradual continuation of bop
2. a highly singable, bop-based music that, dubbed "funky jazz" and "soul jazz," that has melodies with bluesy, gospel-like features and has accompaniments of simple, repetitive figures, some of which are Latin American.
3. An extremely hard driving later development with roots in bop that often involved composing pieces using origianal chord progression and improvising lines.
4. A new approach emerging in the 1960s that was based mostly on original concepts that were not part of the concurrent "free jazz" movement.
By the 1970s, the majority of young trumpeters, including Woody Shaw and Randy Brecker, were imitatng whom?
Where did Freddie Hubbard's early playing draw from?
Clifford Brown, Miles Davis, and Chet Baker
Difference in Miles Davis' and Freddie Hubbard's playing?
Davis got away from the beat, hubbard stuck close to the beat and liked to double time. Hubbard's sense of time is unusally precise and extremely firm.
Davis manner was olemn and methodical, while Hubbard's work sounds off-handed and playful.
What demanding technique did Freddie Hubbard master?
without changing fingering or shaking the trmpet, he rapidly alternated, in legato manner, intervals of a minor third, moving the bottom note instepwise fashion.
What became a trademark of Freddie Hubbard's highly virtuosic style?
How is Cannonball Adderley's style like Charlie Parkers?
highly fluid, supercharged, and unpredictable
What 8 components can Miles Davis' playing style being divided into?
1. alternating pitch and tone quality
2. frequent use of a Harmon mute
3. using silence as an effective dramatic device
4. generate lines that are free from a sense of strict tempo and swing feeling
5. an acute sensitivity in paraphrasing melodies
6. Mastery of economy and succinctness
7. the cluster of traits possess by his tone quality and preference for pitch range.
8. an overriding concern with sound texture in his trumpet style and the concepts of sound