ethics exam 2.txt
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What are Kohlberg's 3 moral levels?
1) Preconventional Level 2)Conventional Level 3)Postconventional, autonomous, principled level
What are Kohlberg's 6 moral stages?
1) Punishment and obidience orientation 2) Instrumental relativist orientation 3) Interpersonal concordance (goodboy-nicegirl) Orientation 4) Society mantaining orientation 5) Social contract orientation 6) Universal ethical principle orientation
What two stages are in the preconventional level?
1) Punishment and obidience orientation 2) Instrumental relativist orientation
What two stages are in the Conventional level?
1) Interpersonal concordance 2) Society maintaining orientation
What two stages are in the postconventional level?
1) Social contract orientation 2) universal ethical principle
Explain the Punishement and obedient orientation.
What's good to do gets an immediate reward. What is bad gets an immediate punishment
Explain the Instrumental relativist orientation.
What is good gets you desired results in the long run. What is bad gets you undesireable results in the long run. Requires an understanding of subtle social mechanisms and long term consequences.
Explain the Interpersonal concordance (goodboy-nicegirl) orientation.
Good behaviors is what peers and immediate authority figuires consider to be good. Bad behaviors is what they consider to be bad.
Explain the Society maintaining orientation.
Good behavior is what a culture or society considers good. Bad behavior is what culture or society considers bad. Emphasis on authority, laws and maintaining a given social order, No ability to question if culture is right.
Explain the social contract orientation.
What is good maximizes the benefit and minimizes the negative consequences for everyone in society. Emphasis on taking everyone's POV into condsideration and arriving at a consensus.
Explain the universal ethical principle orientation.
What is right, is what conforms to self-chosen, universal, abstract principles (Like stage 5, but with less emphasis on consequences) (Life and property value)
Kohlberg thinks the six stages of moral development are culturally ________.
What does it mean when Kohlberg says he feels the six stages of moral development are culturally invariant?
He means that any human, despite their culture will either develop from 1 thru 2,3,4,5,6 or stop developing somewhere before 6.
Kohlberg claims that most people do not develop past which stage?
What was gilligan's pov on ethics of care?
It's important for achieving social unity, common goals and are for those with fewer resources or abilities
What was Giligan's POV of Ethics or rights?
Is important for developing standards of fairness and limiting responsibilities of caring for all those who need it.
What was Held's POV on ethics of care?
Needs to be more basic, cant have life w/o care. We can have it w/o justice.
What was Held's POV on ethics of rights?
Is important but should be provided within the framework provided by the ethics of care. Should give ppl adequate care to help them to become autonomous.
What does Gilligan think is wrong with Kohlberg's theory?
Both male AND female POV are important in both the home and public
What is ethical egoism?
The ethical theory which claims that each person should do what is in his or her own self-interest.
What is the difference between ethical egoism and ethical subjectivism?
The difference between ethical egoism and ethical subjectivism is that the morality in ethical egoism is objective, meaning if it is the person's self interest, it is right, for ethical subjectivism, if something is in the best interest of a person, it may or may not be morally right.
What does Rand think about altruism?
She feels it is wrong to focus on other people for any reason. do what's in your best interest always.
What does Rand think about independent action vs. collective action?
Ppl can think and create only independently not collectively. (w/e promotes personal independence is good, w.e interferes w/ personal independence is bad)
What was Rand's main argument for her theory?
It is only by using their minds that human beings can conquer nature and make a better world for themselves
What is Wilson's Soft Core Altruism?
Helpful behavior that only seems to involve self-sacrifice. (conciously or subconciously motivated by an assumed reward for her helpfulness)
What is Wilson's Hard-Core Altruism?
- Helpful behavior that is not (even subconciously) motivated by the hope of reward or reciprocation.
- (rare and usually directed at immediate kin)
What does Wilson think about Soft-core Altruism?
Eventually lead to greater social harmony because it motivates. People to co-operate w/ others outside of their immediate social group.
What does Wilson think about Hard-core altruism?
He thinks hard-core altruism can be dangerous, b/c it is usually inflexible, irrational and directed only at small group of people.
Examples of soft-core altruism?
- volunteering for grades
- Donating for tax refunds
Examples of hard-core altruism
- Caring 4 family
- Kindness to strangers
Which form of altruism does Wilson think is dangerous?
What is the Utilitarian Greatest Happiness Principle?
- The principle of utility states that actions or behaviors are right in so far as they promote happiness or pleasure, wrong as they tend to produce unhappiness or pain
- Bentham: By the principle of utility is meant that principle which approves or disapproves of every acion whatsoever, acording to the tendency which it appears to have to augment or diminish the happiness of the party whose interest is in question or what comes to the same thing (iow) to promote or opposes that happiness.
What is consequentialism?
The goodness or badness of an action determined entirely by its consequence. Intentions of the person are irrelevant.
What was Bentham's idea of how we calculate the pleasure or pain ?
Count everyone equally. Bentham expects the principle of utility to yield a definite answer about what is right or wrong, even in complex.
What were the 7 factors that Bentham took into consideration to measure the overall expected please or pain for a moral dilemma?
Intensity, duration, certainty, Propinquinty (how soon), fecundity, purity and extent
How does Mill's view of utilitarianism differ from Bentham's?
- For bentham pleasures weigh differently only if they differ in strentgh, duration, tendency to create more pleasure, or tendency to create pain.
- Mill claims that certain kinds of pleasures are intrinsically better than others. (better in a way that it does not depend on their good or bad effects)
What is the difference between utilitarianism and ethical egoism?
- Utilitarianism is the ethical theory of doing what is in the best interest for not only you but others depending of the pleasures and pain of the action.
- Ethical egoism is the ethical theory that what is morally right is whatever is in a person's own best interest.
How did Mill distinguish if a pleasure was higher or lower?
- HIgher= intellectual pleasures (feelings, creativity and virtues)
- Lower=bodily pleasures
What was Mill's justification for the way he distinguished the importance of the pleasures?
He stated that People who have experiences intellectual and bodily pleasures say they enjoy the intellectual pleasure better. So in this case, to mill, intellectual pleasures and superior and make people more happy.
For singer, what does he use to determine who gets moral consideration?
- If the person or thing has experienced pleasure or pain.
- (Tables can't have pain...so tables not considered)
How does singer use the utilitarian greatest happiness principle (utilitarianism) to argue that the way we treat animals is morally wrong?
- Basically because we cause animals more pain just to give humans trivial pleasures. (I.E cosmectic testing that can harm or kill animals, raising them for food in horrible conditions.)
- Pleasure and pain for all those who can feel it are not being thought of.
What does singer feel our obligations are to help people in the world?
Singer feels that we should do as much as we can as long as it does not cause anything else that's bad to happen.
What is supererogatory duty?
- an act which it would be good to do, but not wrong not to do.
- (we ought to give the money away, and it is wrong not to do so)
What's wrong with how we donate charity?
We give less than what we can afford, assuming that other people will give more, or the example in which if everyone gave 5 pounds it would suffice, but since some people don't, other people should pay more (does not happen this way, people will just generally pay less as an whole)
What are two arguments that Singer makes, that we have an obligation to help starving people
- we ought to be preventing as much suffering as we can without sacrificing
- something else of comparable moral importance
- The "Global Village" theory- sending physcial help to maintain and protect our others, our "global village"
How does the Utilitarian Greates Happiness Principle fit into Singers support ?
- What is morally right is what causes more pleasure than pain for wour society (world).
- If we can give pleasure to those less fortunate by causing little pain to us (donating, helping, etc.) It is morally right to help with the relief of those in need.
What is William's idea of integrity?
the commitments that people identify with most deeply, as constituting what they consider their life is fundamentally about
Why does William think utilitarian's have trouble accounting for the importance of integrity
because he feels that it can not make the most superficial sense of human desire and action at all.
What is the example that Bernard Willams discusses to explain what he thinks is wrong with utilitarianism?
The indiam example. Killing one person to free the rest of them. Utilitarians believe this is right because one person is getting the pain of death and everyone esle is being let go.
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