Anatomy Lab

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Anatomy Lab
2011-11-01 23:27:07

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  1. Spinal Cord
    • Extends through vertebral canal from foramen magnum to L1
    • Each pair of spinal nerves receives sensory information and issues motor signals to muscles and glands
    • A component of the Central Nervous System while the spinal nerves are part of the Peripheral Nervous System
  2. Anatomy of Spinal Cord
    • Cylinder of nerve tissue within the vertebral canal (thick as a finger)
    • –Vertebral column grows faster so in an adult the spinal cord only extends to L1
    • 31 pairs of spinal nerves arise from cervical, thoracic, lumbar and sacral regions of the cord
    • –Each cord segment gives rise to a pair of spinal nerves
  3. Gray Matter
    Neuron cell bodies with little myelin
  4. White Matter
    Myelinated axons
  5. Cervical in the Neck
    • C1 to C5
    • Supplies neck and phrenic nerve to the diaphragm
  6. Brachial in the Armpit
    • C5 to T1
    • Supplies upper limb and some of shoulder & neck
  7. Lumbar in the Low Back
    • L1 to L4
    • Supplies abdominal wall, anterior thigh & genitalia
  8. Sacral in the Low Pelvis
    • L4, L5 & S1 to S4
    • Supplies remainder of butt & lower limb
  9. Coccygeal
    • S4, S5 and C0
    • Not really important
  10. Olfactory
    Sense of smell
  11. Optic
  12. Oculomotor,Trochlear, Abducens
    Eye movement
  13. Trigemenal
    Face: sensory, movement
  14. Facial
    Face: expression and sensory
  15. Auditory
    Hearing and balance
  16. Glossopharyngeal
    Tongue and throat: motor and sensory
  17. Vagus
  18. Accesory
    Head, neck and shoulder: movement and swallowing
  19. Hypoglassal
    Speech, swallowing, and chewing
  20. Sensory (Afferent) Neurons
    • Conduct signals from receptors to the CNS
    • Perephyreal Nervous System
  21. Interneurons (Association Neurons)
    Confined to the CNS
  22. Motor (Efferent) Neurons
    • Conduct signals from the CNS to effectors such as muscles and glands
    • Periphyreal Nervous System
  23. Somatic Reflexes
    • Quick, involuntary, stereotyped reactions of glands or muscle to sensory stimulation
    • Automatic responses to sensory input that occur without our intent or often even our awareness
  24. Somatic Reflex Arc
    • Stimulation of somatic receptors
    • Afferent fibers carry signal to dorsal horn of spinal cord
    • Interneurons integrate the information
    • Efferent fibers carry impulses to skeletal muscles
    • Skeletal muscles respond
  25. Patellar Tendon Reflex Arc
    • 1. Extensor muscle stretched
    • 2. Muscle spindle stimulated
    • 3. Primary afferent neuron excited
    • 4. Primary afferent neuron stimulates alpha motor neuron to extensor muscle
    • 5. Primary afferent neuron stimulates inhibitory interneuron
    • 6. Interneuron inhibits alpha motor neuron to flexor muscle
    • 7. Alpha motor neuron stimulates extensor muscle to contract
    • 8. Flexor muscles (antagonist) relaxes
  26. Sympathetic Ganglion
    Carries information for some voluntary feelings or movements such as stress and anger, as well as fight and flight