Ch 10 chem.txt

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Ch 10 chem.txt
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2011-11-02 01:10:15
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chem ch 10
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  1. What is Organic Chemistry?
    the study of Carbon based molecules
  2. How many organic molecules could there be?
    infinite number
  3. what type of orbit do s orbitals have?
    circluar
  4. what type of orbit do p orbitals have?
    figure 8 orbits
  5. What type of shape do the hybrid orbitals have?
    sp3 is a triangular prisum, sp2 is a triangle, sp is in a straight line
  6. what is the number of carbon bonds for each hybrid orbital?
    4 bonds to sp3, 3 bonds to sp2 and two bonds to sp
  7. what is the degree measure for each hybrid orbital?
    sp3 is 109.5 degrees, 120 degrees for sp2, 180 degrees for sp
  8. how many carbons are in methane, butane, ethane, pentane,hexane, propane,heptane
    1,4,2,5,6,3,7
  9. what are the 5 types of representation
    structural, condensed structural, line angle, ball and stick, and space filling
  10. What is a formal charge?
    valence electrons - (nonbonded electrons + .5(bonded electrons))
  11. what is the name of the functional group that looks like a pentagon?
    arene
  12. What is organic synthesis?
    reacting molecules to make other molecules based around transforing functional groups
  13. where is electronegativity highest at?
    the top right of the pierodic table
  14. What is the rule for solubility?
    Like dissolves like
  15. What disolves polar molecules? what is an example?
    water, salts
  16. what disolves non polar molecules? what is an example?
    hexane, grease
  17. When designing drugs what kind of solubility should they be?
    hydrophilic enough to be soluble in water but hydrophobic enough to pass through cells
  18. what does hydrophilic and hydrophobic mean?
    favors water and nonpolar solvents respectivly
  19. what is the free base?
    simply the basic form of the molecule.
  20. What is dna a guide to?
    making proteins
  21. what are amino acids composed of?
    amino acids
  22. how many amino acids are there?
    there are 20 naturally occurring amino acids
  23. what is the primary structure of proteins?
    the swquence of the amino acids
  24. what are polypeptides?
    amino acids that have been linked together by covalent bonds?
  25. what are covalent bonds?
    typically irreversible, difficult to break chemical bonds
  26. what is the secondary structure of proteins?
    the 3d subunits of a protein (alpha helixes and beta sheets)
  27. what type of 3d units do polypeptides form?
    alpha helices and beta sheets (the spiral and the unspiraled versions respectily)
  28. What do tertiary structures refer to?
    the whole protein
  29. what is the quaternary structure of proteins
    the noncovalent association of two or more proteins
  30. How do drugs deliever there message?
    throgh chemical signaling pathways in the body
  31. What are Hormones?
    chemical messengers produced by the body's endocrine glands
  32. what are some exampls or the body's endocrine glands?
    pancreas, thyroid
  33. what is aspirin usfull for (possible) (4)
    reduces pain, swelling, fever, heart attack chances
  34. what does NSAID stand for?
    Non steriodal anti inflamatory drug
  35. what is an enzyme?
    biochemical catalysts
  36. how does Aspirin and other NSAID drugs work?
    they block the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes.
  37. what does COX (cyclooxygenase) do?
    synthesizes hornone like compounds called prostaglandins from arachidonic acid

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