you already have a conclusion, so you look for evidence to support it with selective attention.
3. First principle of critical thinking
Be open minded and skeptic.
4. Importance of a stable, yet flexible memory system
Stable=To remember, Flexible=To learn
5. Advantages of a constructive memory system
It requires reconstructing information instead of encoding a copy. Remembering interpreted information.
6. Short-term memory vs. long-term memory
ST= Can repeat info right after receiving it. LT= Encoded deeper
7. Necessary truth
Something that cannot be false
8. Cognitive Scheme
A network of biases. our brains think in categories and we tend to lump things into those categories
9. New knowledge and memory
10. Problems with relying on common sense
11. Fallacy of appeal to ignorance
An argument based on a lack of evidence. (Some people were accused of being communists in court, but they had no proof of being communists or NOT being communists)
12. Cognitive opinion
Opinion based on careful examination of evidence
13. Affective opinion
Opinion based on emotions
14. Reasonable doubt
When you don't have enough evidence to prove something is true.
15. Four types of evidence used to evaluate a claim
Experimental, Statistical, Anecdotal (based on personal experience- varies from person to person), Testimonial (someone else's experience)
16. Encoding and decoding
Encoding= storing information to recall in short or long term memory. Decoding= analyzing and interpreting information.
17. Relationship between sensation, perception, and memory
Sensation= experiencing our senses (touch, taste, smell, sight). Perception= how we interpret the sensations and make sense of the environment. We encode these experiences into memory.
18. Memory and consciousness
Short term memory best represents consciousness.
Two types of memory: Declarative=conscious memory, non declarative= unconscious
19. Reasons for egocentrism and ethnocentrism
Ego.= Your belief is the most important. Ethno.= Your group's belief is most important.
20. Perceptual filters
Our senses are selective and biases affect the way we interpret reality.
21. Selective attention and critical thinking
Selective attention is not conductive to critical thinking because it is paying attention to things that fit in our schemas.
22. Subjective relativism
Points of view have no absolute truth, just a subjective value because everyone perceives things differently.
23. Declarative memory vs. non-declarative memory
Dec= Episodic. Events we participated in memory (high school graduation, the time you broke your arm when you were 9) Non-dec= Semantic. Math, vocab, how to tie your shoelaces.
24. Types of information we are most likely to remember
Survival, emotional, something interesting or something you understand.
25. Difference between opinion and reasoned judgment
Opinion= doesn't need evidence. Reasoned jud= the more evidence the better.
26. Self-fulfilling prophecy
expectations of an event that directly or indirectly cause it to be true. (you expect a subject to react a certain way to the medication, the way you treat them may give them a placebo effect and they believe they are experiencing the side effects)
27. Law of large numbers
As your number of samples increases, the average of the samples is more likely to represent the population.
28. Theory vs. hypothesis
theory= explains an aspect of the natural world with evidence. hypothesis= an educated, testable guess.
29. Four things that scientific inquiry permits
Describe, explain, predict, control
30. Four criteria for rating the adequacy of a hypothesis
Testability, Predictive power (Scope)- how much it proves, Parsimony (Simplicity. See 33)- Requires few assumptions, Conservativism (See 34)
31. Fallacy of appeal to false authority
When a person is not an expert in that field of testimony.
32. Four steps of evaluating a supernatural claim
State claim, examine evidence, consider alternative hypothesis, rate each hypothesis.
33. Principle of parsimony
the more simplistic the idea is- the less assumptions that can be proved wrong- the more likely it is to be true.
34. Principle of conservatism
the idea is better if it is consistent with what we already know.
35. Purpose of correlation research
Correlation research= comparing 2 variables so we can learn how the 2 variables are related. The purpose is= we can make a prediction on one variable based on what we know about the other.
36. Limits of correlation research
correlation does not equal causation. Through correlation research we can determine there is a relationship between academic success and self esteem, but it can't show if it increases or decreases self esteem. Other variables might play a role too.
37. Positive correlation and negative correlation
Pos= Both variables increase or decrease at the same time (+1.00 is strong pos correlation) Neg= As one variable increases the other decreases (-1.00 is strong neg correlation)
38. Difference between scientific method and other forms of knowledge
Scientific method is about investigating nature to produce reliable knowledge.
39. Post Hoc fallacy
One thing happens after the other, therefore the first event caused the second event. (You're sitting at a red light, you sneeze and the light turns green. Your sneeze did not effect the light.)
40. Causal oversimplification
When it is believed that there is one simple cause for an outcome, when it may have been caused by a more complex myriad of joint causes.
41. Problems with statistical evidence
process of making something random- important for making statistical evidence reliable.
43. External validity
Validating a cause in scientific studies.
44. Conceptual definition and operational definition
Con=textbook definition. Op=identifies observable conditions and how to measure them.
45. Control group
Provides a standard of what the group would normally do. (It's the group you give the placebo to, to compare to the group with the actual drug)
46. Dangers of relying on personal experience
Our senses can trick us- selective attention and memory can change.
47. Halo effect
testimony by a party that is liked, so the statement is well received and therefore are more likely to believe them.
48. Purpose of an experiment
To create or collect evidence to prove a hypothesis.
49. Scientific attitude toward knowledge
A way you make a claim, not what you find, it's how you follow the procedure and eliminate biases and errors.