Fundamentals of Poetry

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  1. Poetry
    • - A patterned form of verbal and written expression of ideas in concentrated, imaginative, and rhythmical terms
    • -Usually contains rhyme and a specific meter, but not necessarily
  2. Meter
    • The pattern of stressed (') and unstressed (u) syllables established in a line of poetry
    • Consider importance of word and position in metrical pattern when determining meter
  3. Foot
    • A unit of meter
    • Two or three syllables
    • Generally one stressed, one or more unstressed
    • Make up a line of poetry (line may have one foot, two feet. etc)
    • Lines are classified based on number of feet
  4. Types of Metrical Feet
    • iambic foot
    • trochaic foot
    • anapestic foot
    • dactylic foot
    • spondaic foot
    • pyhrric foot
  5. Iamb
    • Unstressed + Stressed (two syllables)
    • i.e be-low, de-light, a-muse
    • A book / of ver / ses un / der neath / the bough. / (Line Break) A jug / of wine, / a loaf / of bread / --and thou.
    • Additional notes:
    • -Most common foot in English
  6. Trochee
    • Stressed + Unstressed
    • i.e ne-ver, ga-ther, hap-py
    • Dou-ble, / dou-ble, / toil and / trou-ble (Line Break) Fi-re / burn and / caul-dron / bub-ble
  7. Anapest
    • Unstressed + Unstressed + Stressed (Three Syllables)
    • i.e cav-a-lier, Loch-in-var, in-ter-twine
    • With the sheep / in the fold / and the cows / in their stalls
  8. Dactyl
    • Stressed + Unstressed + Unstressed
    • i.e hap-pi-ness, mer-ri-ly, mur-mur-ing
    • love a-gain / song a-gain / nest a-gain / young a-gain
  9. Spondee
    • Stressed + Stressed (Two Syllables)
    • i.e heart-break, child-hood, foot-ball
    • Additional notes:
    • -used for variation
    • -compound words
  10. Pyrrhic
    • Unstressed + Unstressed
    • Additional notes:
    • -very rare; often interspersed with other feet
  11. Kinds of Metrical Lines
    • Monometer--one foot line
    • Dimeter--two foot line
    • Trimeter--three foot line
    • Tetrameter--four foot line
    • Pentameter--five foot line
    • Hexameter--six foot line
    • Heptameter--seven foot line
    • Octometer--eight foot line
  12. Example (Iambic Monometer)
    • Upon His Departure
    • Thus I
    • Pass by
    • And die,
    • As one,
    • Unknown
    • And gone
  13. Example (Trochaic Dimeter)
    • Money
    • Workers earn it,
    • Spendthrifts burn it
    • Bankers lend it,
    • Women spend it,
    • Forgers fake it,
    • * * *
    • I could use it.
  14. Example (Iambic Trimeter)
    • The Idle Life I Lead
    • The idle life I lead
    • Is like a pleasant sleep,
    • Wherein I rest and heed
    • The dreams that by me sweep.
  15. Example (Iambic Tetrameter)
    • Not Quite Far
    • The hills, the meadows, and the lakes,
    • Enchant not for their own sweet sakes.
    • They cannot know, they cannot care
    • To know that they are thought so fair.
  16. Example (Iambic Pentameter)
    • Quotations from Alexander Pope
    • True wit is Nature to advantage dress'd
    • What oft was thought, but ne’er so well express’d.

    • The bookful blockhead, ignorantly read,
    • With loads of learned lumber in his head.
  17. Example (Iambic Hexameter-also referred to as an Alexandrine)
    • The Eves of St. Agnes
    • To think how they may ache in icy hoods and mails

    • Fifine at the Fair
    • If hunger, proverbs say, allures the wolf from wood,
    • Much more the bird must dare a dash at something good.
  18. Example (Iambic Heptameter)
    • Casey At The Bat
    • It looked extremely rocky for the Mudville nine that day,
    • The score stood four to six with but an inning left to play
  19. Example (Trochaic Octameter)
    • The Raven
    • Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered, weak and weary,
  20. Verse Forms
    • Based on meter and rhyme:
    • rhymed verse
    • blank verse
    • free verse
  21. Rhymed Verse
    Usually regular meter + end rhyme
  22. Blank Verse
    Lines of iambic pentameter + no end rhyme
  23. Rhyme
    • The similiarity or likeness of sound existing between two words
    • i.e fun and run
    • Additional notes: true rhyme
    • -indentical-sounding syllables that are stressed
    • -different letters preceding vowel sounds
  24. End Rhyme
    • Similarity occuring at the end of two or more lines of verse
    • i.e I wish my room had a floor
    • I don't so much care for a door
  25. Internal Rhyme
    • Similarity occuring between two or more words in the same line of verse
    • i.e Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered weak and weary,
  26. Free Verse
    No regular meter + do not contain rhyme
Card Set
Fundamentals of Poetry
A collection of flashcards based on William Leahy's "Fundamentals of Poetry" designed for memorization and test preparation.
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