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differences in how people think.
something prompts you to recall a similar event from your own life.
- something prompted you to recall objective facts about the a certain subject.
- e.g. seeing a scene prompts memories of the distribution of blood vessels in the head.
transformation of sensory input into mental representations and manipulating those representations.
process of imposing order on the info our sense organs take in.
making sense of or explaining various events in the world.
standards that people develop for evaluating themselves.
Rod and Frame Test
experimenter can adjust the tilt of the rod, frame, and the participant’s chair. task is to adjust the rod by turning a dial so that it is perfectly upright (without using the frame as reference).
- dependent on the visual field;
- adjusting the rod so its leaning in the direction on the frame.
- rely on own sensations not the perception of the field to make a judgment
- disregard the external cues and use info from their body to adjust the rod.
Embedded figures test
- hidden pictures test
- cant find figures easily = field dependent
- quickly spotting many or all the shapes = field independent
degree of pain one can experience before they become uncomfortable.
dimension along which people differ in reaction to sensory stimulation.
- does not exist in itself
- a word that summarizes a set of observations and conveys the meaning of those observations.
- personal constructs
- constructs a person routinely uses to interpret and predict events.
intellectual position grounded in the notion that reality is constructed, every person and certainly every culture has a version of reality that is unique, no single version of reality is any more privileged than another.
locus of control
describes a person’s perception of responsibility for the events in his or her life.
person’s expectations for reinforcement held across a variety of situations.
external locus of control
generalized expectancy that events are outside one’s control.
internal locus of control
expectancy that events are under one’s control and one is responsible for major outcomes in life.
specific areas of life where people might be internal in one area and external in another.
- being unable to escape and then continuing to behave with that mentality even when you can escape.
- when shown how to escape, subjects do escape after learned helplessness.
set of relevant actions intended to achieve a goal that a person has selected.
cognitive social learning approach
emphasizes the cognitive and social processes whereby people learn to value and strive for certain goals over others.
- belief that one can execute a specific course of action to achieve a goal.
- higher self efficacy = more persistent, sets higher goals than low efficacy
seeing other engage in the performance with positive results.
concerned with advancement, growth and accomplishment.
regulation of goal directed behaviors in two ways:
- promotion focus
- prevention focus
protection, safety, and prevention of negative outcomes and failures.
- if sit A, then person does X, but if sit B, person does Y
- way of personality expression
achievement view of intelligence
educational attainment, how much knowledge a person has acquired.
aptitude view of intelligence
ability to become educated, as the ability or aptitude.
- interpersonal intelligence
- intrapersonal intelligence (insight into self)
- kinesthetic intelligence – athletes
- musical intelligence
- emotional intelligence
cultural context of intelligence
“intelligent behavior” differs across cultures.
discrimination b/t two displayed objects.
subjective feelings accompanied by bodily changes.
increases in the probabilities of some behaviors.
whether emotions increase the fitness of individuals.
- a pattern of emotional reactions that a peson consistently experiences across a variety of life situations.
- stable over time
- characteristic for each person.
primary emotions are key (categorical vs dimensional approach to emotion)
researchers gather data by having subjects rate themselves on a wide variety of emotions then use statistics to ID the basic dimensions underlying the ratings.
- specific kind of emotion a person experiences.
- e.g. he is cheerful.
- way in which an emotion is experienced.
- e.g. he is high in mood variability.
inflated view of ones own characteristics as a good , able, desirable person.
guided messages of pleasant or unpleasant scenes attempt to set peoples moods.
part of brain responsible for emotion and fight or flight response.
- portion of brain located deep inside likely involved in social rejection.
- feelings of sadness and distress.
- part of executive control center
- when told to restrain emotions, activity was seen here.
diathesis stress model
- person has a preexisting vulnerability or diathesis.
- in addition a stressful life event must occur to trigger the depression or diathesis.
way of looking at the world.
info about self, world, and future.
- taking one instance and generalizing to all other instances.
- e.g. failing a test, “I’m a total failure”
- jumping to negative conclusion even when evidence doesn’t support it.
- e.g. teacher couldn’t see me, she probably doesn’t like me.
- assuming everything is your fault
- e.g. my softball team lost and its all my fault
thinking the worst will always happen.
- arbirtrary inferences
neurotransmitter theory of depression
- emotional problem result of neurotransmitter ibalance at synapses .
self fulfilling prophecy
thinking he is a total failure will act like a total failure and may even give up trying to do better.
description of persons who are either high or low on this dimension.
more frequent fluctuations in their emotional lives over time.
private self concept
major but often difficult development in growth of the self concept.
ability to take perspectives of others, see self from as others do, step outside oneself and imagine how one appears to other people.
objective self awareness
seeing yourself as an object o others attention.
refers to specific knowledge structure or cognitive representation of self concept.
many ideas people have about who they might become.
standards that one uses to organize info and motivate appropriate behavior.
we have many roles and many aspects to our self concept.
strategy where a person facing a challenge expects to do poorly.
process where a person deliberately does the things that increase the probabily that they will fail.
self esteem variability
indiv differences characteristic; is the magnitude of short term fluctuations in ongoing self esteem.
people can count on you to be the same person tomorrow as you are today.
your social identity differentiates you from other people.
feelings of anxiety that accompany efforts to define or redefine one’s own individuality.
when a person has not formed an adequate identyt and thus has trouble making major decisions.
- involves an incompatibility between two or more aspects of identity.
- “approach-approach” conflicts, the person wants to reach two mutually contradictory goals.
Levels of cognition
- beliefs and desires
Rotter’s expectancy model of learning behavior
Rotter emphasized that a person’s expectations for reinforcement held across a variety of situations, what he called generalized expectancies.
illusion of control
an expectation that personal success is greater than the object probability would warrant.
- tendency that some people have to use certain attributional categories when explaining causes of events; when things go wrong does it have an impact on learned helplessness of people.
Three broad categories of attributions
- External or internal
- Stable or unstable
- Global or specific
- style is stable over time
External or internal (personalization)
Personal fault vs something/someone elses fault.
Stable or unstable (permanence)
When bad things happen, they always happen the same way, its just the way it is.
Global or specific (pervasiveness)
- Specific reason something bad happened (student claims they cant write papers)
- Global (student claims they're bad at everything academic) high exaggeration.
Beck’s cognitive theory
- certain cognitive style is a pre-existing condition that makes people vulnerable to depression.
- Cognitive distortions
- Beck devises CBT
Eynseck’s biological theory
Neuroticism is due primarily to the tendency of the limbic system in the brain to become easily activated.
- Neuroticism is highly stable over time
- Neuroticism is a major dimension of personality
- Cross-cultural – found in every culture of the world
- Neuroticism shows moderate heritability – runs in the family to a degree
Type A personality and heart disease
- Research identified type A personality as a predictor of heart disease.
- Research subsequently identified hostility as a trait of type A most strongly related to heart disease
- Greater likelihood of heart problems for person who tends to be hostile
6 myths of self esteem
- high self esteem is correlated with all manner of positive characteristics (attractiveness, intellect, kindness) FALSE
- high self esteem promotes success in school FALSE
- high self esteem promotes success on the job FALSE job success may increase self esteem
- high self esteem makes a person likable FALSE
- low self esteem puts a person at risk for drug and alcohol abuse and premature sexual activity FALSE
- only low self esteem people are aggressive FALSE
differences in happiness over age
- financial security and health – older
- success at school or work and satisfying intimate relationships - younger