NUTR 550 exam 2

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NUTR 550 exam 2
2011-11-02 10:31:16

Exam 2 book notes
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  1. Food
    • is the discipline in which engineering,
    • biological, and physical sciences are used to study the nature of foods, the
    • causes of deterioration, the principles underlying food processing and the
    • improvement of foods for the consuming public
  2. Lignin
    • structural component of some plant foods that
    • is removed to avoid a woody quality in the prepare food
  3. Senescence-
    • accumulation
    • of metabolic products increase in respiration and some loss of moisture in
    • plant foods after maturation
  4. Turgor
    • distention
    • of the protoplasm and cell wall of a plant by fluid content
  5. Lycopene
    • acyclic
    • carotene responsible for red color in tomatoes and watermelon and overtones in
    • apricots an other yellow-orange fruits and vegetables; antioxidant that may
    • help prevent some cancers and coronary heart disease
  6. Glycerol
    • polyhydric
    • alcohol containing three carbon atoms, each which is joined to the hydroxyl
    • group
  7. Eicosapentanoic
    acid (EPA)
    • biologically
    • active omega-3 fatty acids with 20 carbon atoms and a 5 double bonds
  8. Docosahexanoic
    acid (DHA)
    • biologically
    • active omega- 3 fatty acid containing 22 carbon atoms and 6 double bond
  9. Unsaturation
    • lack of hydrogen relative to the amount that
    • can be held, a situation characterized by a double bond between 2 carbon atoms
    • in the fatty acid chain
  10. Smoke
    • temperature
    • at which a fat or oil begins to emit some takes of smoke
  11. Tempering
    • removing
    • heat resulting from crystallization of fat and maintaining a selected
    • temperature to promote the formation of stable, desirable crystals
  12. Bloom
    • granular
    • appearing, discolored areas on the surface of chocolate; the result of melting
    • of less stable crystals and crystallization as beta crystals on the surface
  13. Hydrogenation
    • addition
    • of hydrogen to an unsaturated fatty acid in the presence of a catalyst to
    • reduce it unsaturation of the molecule and raised the melting point
  14. Interesterification
    • treatment
    • of a fat, usually large, with sodium metal oxide or another agent to split
    • fatty acids from glyceryl and then to reorganize them on cholesterol to form
    • different fat molecules with less tendency to form quartz crystals.
  15. Intraesterification
    • catalyzed
    • reaction in which fatty acids split from glycerol and rejoin in a different
    • conflagration, but with the same fatty acids being retained in the molecule
  16. Docosahexanoic
    acid (DHA)
    • omega-3
    • fatty acid containing 22 carbon atoms and 6 double bonds
  17. Eicosapentanoic
    acid (EPA)
    • Omega-3
    • fatty acid containing 20 carbon atoms and 5 double bonds
  18. Omega-3
    fatty acid
    • polyunsaturated
    • fatty acid with the first double bond on the third carbon from the methyl end
    • of the molecule
  19. Plasticity
    • ability
    • of fat to be spread or creamed
  20. Shortening
    • ability
    • of the fat to cover a large surface area to minimize the contact between water
    • angling during mixing of batters and doughes
  21. Creaming
    • vigorous
    • blending of fat and sugar to incorporate air to promote fine, light textures in
    • cakes
  22. Amino
    • organic
    • compounds containing an amino group and then organic acid group
  23. Peptide
    • linkage
    • from the next general one amino acid to the carbon of the carboxyl group of
    • another amino acid
  24. Albumin
      • water-soluble globular
      • proteins that can beat coagulated by heat

  25. Globulins
    • globular
    • proteins that can be regulated by heat, but with limited solubility in water
  26. Conjugated
    • compounds
    • containing proteins attached to another substance
  27. Isoelectric
    • the
    • pH at which a protein molecule is electrically neutral; the specific pH differs
    • for various proteins
  28. Denaturation
    • relaxation
    • of the tertiary to the secondary structure of a protein accompanied by
    • decreasing solubility of protein
  29. Coagulation
    • clumping
    • together of denatured protein (often as a result of energy input, such as
    • heating or beating)
  30. Fat-globule
    • outer
    • layer low-fat globule in milk; phospholipids and protein coating the fat
    • globules aid in emulsifying the fat
  31. Whey
    • liquid
    • that range from the curd of clotted milk; contains lactose, proteins,
    • water-soluble vitamins and some minerals
  32. curd
    • milk
    • precipitate that contains casein and forms readily in an acidic medium
  33. Casein
    • -collective
    • name from of proteins precipitated at pH 4.6
  34. Casein
    • casein
    • aggregate that is comparatively stable and remained colloidally dispersed
    • unless a change such as a shift toward the isoelectric point where the use of
    • renting destabilizes and precipitate casein
  35. Hold
    • pasteurization
    • which milk is heated to 63°C (145°F) and held there for 30 min. before it is
    • cooled to 7°C (45°F)
  36. HTS
    T method
    • high
    • temperature and short time pasteurization in which milk is heated to 72°C
    • (161°F) and held there for at least 15 seconds before it is to 10°C (50°F)
  37. UHT
    • extreme
    • pasteurization they killed all microorganisms and makes possible the storage of
    • milk and a close, sterile container at room temperature. 138°C (280°F) released
    • 2 seconds
  38. Homogenization
    • mechanical
    • process in which milk is forced their tiny asked Berkshires under a pressure of
    • 2000 to 2500 psi, which break up fat globules (3-10 µ in diameter) into smaller
    • units (less than 2 µ in diameter) that do not separate from the milk