exam 3

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exam 3
2011-11-04 12:56:38

exam 3
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  1. What are the thyroid follicles surrounded by?
    simple cuboidal
  2. What do the parafollicula cells produce?
  3. Calcitonin
    secreted by parafollicula cells responsible for decreasing the amount of ca in blood
  4. 1 iodine + 1 try
    monoiodotyrosine MIT
  5. 2 iodine+ 1 tyrosine
    diiodotyrosine DIT
  6. T3
  7. t4
  8. What cleaves t3/t4 from the thyroglubin
  9. What is important for the basal metabolic rate?
    thyroid h
  10. What are the two glands that regulate homostasis of ca2+
  11. thyriod and parathyroid
  12. What is the purpose of the pineal gland
    train circadian rhythm and reproduction in animals
  13. What is the thymus important for producing
  14. what are the two important lymphocytes cells in the immune system
    • b-cell = make antibodies
    • t-cells=mediate immunity
  15. What are responsible for sperm productions
    semiferous tubules
  16. What are the semiferous tublues lined with
    germinal epithelium
  17. What produce and secrete testosterone
    interstial cells of leydig
  18. What hormones acts on the semiferous tubles so that they can undergo spermatogenesis
  19. What hormon acts on the cells of leydig to prodce testoterone
  20. Estrogen
    estradial 17 beta secreted bu the ovaries
  21. Progesterone
    secrete by the corpus luteum
  22. What hormone does the placenta secrete
    human chorionic ganadotropin
  23. Graffain follicle
  24. mature follicules
  25. The corpus luteum is form from what
    graffin follicule
  26. What are the 3 layers of the uterus(in order)
    • endometrium
    • myomertium
    • epimetrium
  27. stratum basilis
    against myometruim
  28. Stratum functionalis
    placenta is formed form this. it is produced every month
  29. Menstruation
    • days 1-5
    • shedding of the s.functionalis
  30. Proliferative
    • days 6-13
    • estrogen acts on basalis which causes it to create
  31. What are the three segement of an EKG
    • p wave
    • qrs complex
    • t wave
  32. T wave
    ventricular repolarization
  33. QRS complex
  34. ventricular depolarization
  35. P wave
    Atrial depolarization
  36. Arrhythmia
    abnormal heart rhythm
  37. What are the five class of arrhythmia
    • bradycardia
    • tachycardia
    • flutter
    • fibrillation
    • AV node blockage
  38. Bradycardia
    slow heart rate
  39. Tachycardia
    fast heart rate
  40. Flutter
    • abnormal fast heart due to ectopic pacemaker. heart can still pump blood
    • can have atrial and ventricular flutter
  41. Fibrillation
    quivering with no blood pump. myocardia acting out of sync can not survive with v.fibrillation
  42. What are the three type of av node blockage
  43. first, second, third degree
  44. First degree av node blockage
    PR interval is greater than 0.2sec
  45. Second degree av node blockage
    AV nodes fail to depolarize so we see P but no QRS complex
  46. Third degree av node blockage
    No AP into the ventricules so they can only contract with ectopic pacemaker
  47. What is fibrillation caused by
    circus rhythm (think scar tissue in the heart)
  48. What are the two reason the heart cannnot sustain a contraction
    • 1. no motor units
    • 2. mycardial cells have a long refractory period
  49. Sinoatrial Node
    pacemaker of the heart which exhibits automaticity
  50. Automaticity
    automatically generates an AP
  51. What are the cells of the SA node
    modified cardiac myocytes
  52. What is the rate of the SA node effected by
  53. Do SA node cells have a resting membrane potential
  54. HCN channel
    • Found in pacemaker cells in the heart/brain
    • H=hyperpolarization
    • CN=cyclic nucleotide(cAMP)
    • Are permable to Na(in) K(out)
    • H=opening of channels triggered by end of repolarization
    • Nor/epinphrine bond to beta receptors which open channels
  55. Do myocardial cells have resting membrane potentials
  56. What is the plateau phase of a myocardial cell caused by
    slow opening of K(out) and Ca(in) VG Channels
  57. How is an AP conducted to the ventricles
    AP moves to the AV node which then travels to the AV bundles which branch into right and left bundles which eventually branche into purkinje fibers
  58. Purkinje fibers
    Final branching that conducts AP to the ventricles. they end in papillary muslces
  59. Why does the AV node conduct AP slowly
  60. to allow for the artial to finish systole
  61. What are the four chamber of the heart
    • Left and right Atrium
    • Left and right Ventricles
  62. Fibrous Skeleton
    seperates the heart into atrial myocarium and ventricular myocardium
  63. What allow for blood the flow in one direction in the heart
  64. What are the two valves of the heart
    • AV valves
    • Semilunar valves
  65. Atrioventricular valves(AV)
    • Tricusp(right)
    • Bicusp(left)
  66. Chordae Tendinae
    attache papillary muscle to AV valves
  67. Semilunar Valves
    • pulminary(to lungs and back)
    • Aortic(heart to the body)
  68. Pulminary Seminlunar valve
    • right side of the heart with thinner walls
    • pumps blood for heart to lungs
    • blood enters thru vena cava
  69. Superior vena cava
    pumps blood from the upper body into the heart thru the pulminary valve
  70. Inferior Vena cava
    pumps blood from the lower body into the pulminary valve
  71. What are the double circuits to the heart
    • Pulminary
    • Systemic
  72. What to the valves allow for
    blood to be pumped for the ventricles to the artieris but not back
  73. Systole
  74. Diastole
  75. End diastolic volume
    volume after a.systole
  76. What are the three types of muscle fibers
    • slow oxidative
    • fast glycolytic
    • fast oxidative
  77. What are the two types of smooth muscle
    • mutliunit
    • single unit
  78. Multiunit sm
    each cells acts independently with its own visecral motor unit
  79. Single unit sm
    • arranged in sheets/bundles with cells joined together with gap junctions
    • contract unsing dense bodies
    • innervated by synapse en passat
  80. What are the main difference between smooth m and skeletal m
    • SM have
    • no sarcomers
    • no stripes
    • no z dics
    • more thin then thick myofilaments
    • myosin in thick is perpendicular and extends the lenght
  81. Be sure to check notes for answers to possible exam questions
    • 1.S and F of an endocrine gland.
    • 2.Phases of the menstrual cycle.
    • 3.Sketch and label a sarcomere
    • 4.Describe the events of a cross bridge power stroke
    • 5.S and F of the troponin/tropomyosin complex
    • 6.Excitation/contraction coupling of SK M, CM, or SM
    • 7.Electrical activity of a cell of the SA node, including pacemaker potential (graph and explain) HCN channel function and action potential.
    • 8.AP of a myocardial cell (graph and explain)
    • 9.Sketch and label the cardiac cycle
    • 10. Sketch and label an EKG