Organizational Behavior

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Organizational Behavior
2011-11-02 15:07:22
Concepts controversies applications

chapters 4,5,6 & 7
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  1. what is motivation?
    The intensity, direction and persistance of effort a person shows in reaching a goal.
  2. Theory X define:
    the assumption that employees dislike wor, will attempt to avoid it and must be coerced controlled or thereaatended with pusishment to achieve goals
  3. Theory Y define:
    the assumption that employees like work, are creative, seek responsiblity, and will exercise self derection and self control if they are committed to the objectives
  4. Intrinsic Motivators define
    a person's internal desire to do something, due to such things as interest, challenge, and presonal satisfaction
  5. Extrinsic Motivators define
    Motivation that comes form outside the person and includes such things as pay, bonuses, and other tangible rewards
  6. Hierachy of needs theeory
    a heirachy of five needs, Physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self actualization, all in which as each need is substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominate
  7. ERG theory
    A theory that posits three groups of core needs: existence, relatedness and growth
  8. Motivation Hygiene Theory
    A theory that relates intrinsic factors to job satisfaction and associates sxtrinsic factors with dissatisfaction
  9. McClellan's theory of needs
    • need for achievement: the drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed.
    • Need for power the need to make others behave in a way that they would not behaved otherwise
    • Need for affilation the desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships
  10. Expectancy Theory
    The theory that indivduals act depending upon their evaluation of wheather their effor will lead to good perfomance, whether good performance will be follwed by a given outcome, and whether that outcome is attractive to them
  11. Expectancy
    the belief that effort is related to performance
  12. Instrumentality
    the belief that performance is related to rewards
  13. Valence
    the value or importance an individual places on reward
  14. Goal
    what na individual is trying to accomplish
  15. Management by Objectives (MBO)
    an approach to goal setting in which specific measurable goals are jointly set by managers and employees; progress on goals is periodically reviewed, and rewards are allocated on the basis of this progress
  16. Equity theory
    Individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others, and then repsond so as the eliminate any inequities
  17. Distributive Justice
    the perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals
  18. Organizational Justice
    An overall perception of what is fair in the workplace, composed of distributive, procedual, and interactional justice
  19. Procedural Justice
    the perceived fairness of process used to determine the distribution of rewards
  20. Interactinoal justice
    the quality of interpersonal treatment recived from a manager
  21. Cognitive evaluation theory
    offering extrinsic rewards (pay) for work effor that was perviously rewarding intrinsically will tend to decrease the oeverall level of a person's motivation
  22. Self-concordance
    The degreee to which a pserson's reasons for pursuing a goal is consistent with the peroson's interest and core values
  23. Operant conditioning
    a type of conditioning in which desired voluntary behaviour leads to a reward or pervents a puinshment
  24. Continuous reinforcement
    a deired behaviour is reinforeced each and every time it is demonstrated
  25. Intermittent reinforcedment
    a desired behaviour is reinforced often enough to make the behaviour worth repeating, but not everytime it is demonstrated
  26. fixed-interval schedule
    the reward is given a fixed time intervals
  27. fixed-ratio schedule
    the reward is given at fixed amounts of output
  28. variable-ratio schedule
    the reward is given at variable amounts of output
  29. variable pay program
    a reward program in which a portion of an employee's pay is based on some individual and/or organizational measure of performance
  30. piece rate pay plan
    an individual based incentive plan in which employees are paid a fixed sum for each unit of production completed
  31. Merit based pay plan
    an individual based incentive plan based on performance appraisal ratings
  32. Bonus
    an individual based incentive plan that rewards employees for recent performance rather than historical performance
  33. Skill based pay
    an individual based incentive plan that sets pay levels on the basis of how many skills employees have or how many jobs they can do
  34. Gainsharing
    a group based incentive plan in which improvements in a group productivity determine the total amount of money to be shared
  35. Profit sharing plans
    an organization wide incentive plan in which the employer shares profits with based on a predetermined formula
  36. Employee stock ownership plan (ESOP)
    A company established benefit plan in which employees acquire stock as part of their benefits
  37. Flexible benefits
    a benefits plan that allows each employee to put together a benefits package individually tailored to his or her own needs and situation
  38. Job design
    how tasks are assigned to form a job
  39. Job rotation
    the periodic shifting of an employee form one task to another
  40. Job enlargement
    the horizontal expansion of jobs
  41. Job characteristics Model (JCM)
    a modle that identifies five core job dimensions and their relationship to personal and work outcomes
  42. Job enrichment
    the vertical expansion of jobs
  43. Sill variety
    the degree to which the job requires a variety of different activities
  44. task identify
    the degree to which the job requires completion of a whole and indentifiable peice of work
  45. task significance
    the degree to which the job has substantial impact on the lives or work of other people
  46. Feedback
    the degree to which carrying out the work activitiesrequired by the job results in the individual obtaining direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance
  47. motivating potential sore (MPS)
    a predictive index suggesting the motivation potential in a job
  48. compressed workweek
    a four day week, with employees working 10 hours a day or nine days of work over two weeks
  49. flextime
    an arrangement where employees work during a common core period each day but can form their total workday from a flexible set of hours outside the core
  50. Job sharing
    the practice of having two or more people split a 40 hour week job
  51. Telcommuting
    an arrangement where employees do their work at home on a computer that is linked to their office
  52. What are teams and groups?
    • group two or more peopole with a common relationship
    • Team a small number of people who work slosely together toward a common objective and are accountable to one another
  53. Problem solving (or process-imporvement) team
    a group of 5 to 12 employees from the same department who meet for a few hours each week to discuss ways of improving quality, efficiency, and the work environment
  54. Self managed (or self directed) team
    a group of 10-15 employees who take on many of the responsibilities of their former managers
  55. Cross functional (or project) team
    a group of employees at about the same hierachical level, but from different work areas, who come together to acomplish a task
  56. Task force
    a temporary cross functional team
  57. Committee
    a group composed of members from different departments
  58. virtual team
    a team that uses computer technology to tie togher physically dispersed memberts in order to achieve a common goal
  59. Role
    a set of expected behaviours of a person in given position in a soical unit
  60. role expectations
    how others believe a person should act in a given situation
  61. role conflict
    a situation in which an individual finds that complying with one role requirement may make it more difficult to comply with another
  62. role ambiguity
    a person is unclear about his or her role
  63. role overload
    too much is epected of somone
  64. role underload
    too little is expected of someone and that person feels that he or she is not contributing to the group
  65. Norms
    acceptable standards of behaviour within a group that are shared by the group's members
  66. Conformity
    adjusting one's behaviour to align with the norms of the group
  67. Stages of Group Development and Accompanying Issues
    • Forming; the first stage in a group development, characterized by much uncertaninty
    • Storming; intragroup conflict
    • Norming; close relationships and cohexiveness
    • Performing; when the group is fully functional
    • Adjouring; where attention is directed toward wrapping up activities rather than tak performance
  68. Characteristics of an effective team
    Clear purpose, Informality, Participation, Listening, Civilized disagreements, Open communication, Shared leadership, self-assessment
  69. Team work skills
    Orients team to problem solving situation, organizes and manages team performance, promotes a positive team environment, facilitates and manages task conflict, appropriately peromotes persepctive
  70. Task oriented roles
    roles performed by a group members to ensure that the tasks of the group are accomplished
  71. maintenance roles
    roles performed by group members to maintain good relations within the group
  72. Individual roles
    roles preformed by group members that are not productive for keeping the team on task
  73. Group diversity
    the persence of a heterogeneous mix of individuals within a group
  74. Advantages of Diversity/ Disadvantages
    Advantages; multiple perspctives, greater openness to new ideas, multiple interpertations, increased creativity, increased flexiblity and increased problem sloving skills

    Disadvantages; ambiguity, complexity, confusion, miscommunication, diffictly in reaching a single agreement, difficlty in agreeing on sspecific actions
  75. Soical loafing
    the tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually
  76. Reflexivity
    a team characteristic of reflecting on and adjusting the master plan when necessary
  77. cohesiveness
    the degree to which team members are attacted to each other and are motivated to stay on the team
  78. the commuication process model
    • the transfer and understanding of a message between tow or more people
    • Encoding; converting a message to symbolic form
    • Decoding; interpreting a sender's message
    • Message; what is communicated
    • Channel; the medium though which a message travels
    • Communication apprehension; undue tension and anxisty about oral communication, written communication or both
    • channel richness the amount of information that can be transmitted during a communciation episode
    • Feedback loop; it puts the message back into the system as check against misunderstandings
  79. what are the barriers to communication?
    • Filtering; a sender's manipulation of information so that it will be seen more favourably by the receiver
    • Selective perception
    • Defensiveness
    • Information Overload; the state of having more information than one can process
    • Language
    • Communicating under stress
  80. Three common small group networks and their effectiveness
    • Chain; moderate-high-moderate-moderate
    • Wheel; Fast-high-high-low
    • All Channel; fast-mderate-none-high
  81. Grapevine Patterns
    • Single strand; each tells one another
    • Gossip; one tells all
    • Probability; each randomly tells others
    • Cluster; some tell selected others; most typical
  82. What are other isses in communciation?
    • nonverbal; msessages conveyed through the body movements, facila epression and the physical distance between the sender and receiver
    • Kenesics the study of body motions such as gestures facial configurations and other movements of the body
    • Proxemics the study of physcial space in interperonal relationships
    • Silence; inaction or nonbehaviour
    • Between Men and Women;
    • Cross-Cultural communication